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s-^ 



l^ibrarg of % Htuscum 



OF 



COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 



AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



jFotmtJeti fia? prfbate sufoscrfptfon, fn 1861, 



Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 

No.// fflf, 

jiUj. 3. /fS(o . 



THE 



RAT SOCIETY. 

INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1885. 



LONDON: 

MDCCCLXXXVI. 



THE LAEV^E 



OF THE 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 



AND 



MOTHS. 



BY 

(the late) 

WILLIAM BUCKLER, 



EDITED BY 

H. T. STAIJSTTON, F.E.S. 



Vol. I. 
(THE BUTTERFLIES.) 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY. 



wV *MDCCCXXXXVI. 



MCZ LIBRARY 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
CAMBRIDGE. MA USA 



PBINTED BY 3. E. ADLAED, BAETHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



PBEFACE. 



The origin of the present volume may be briefly 
stated as follows : 

It is the first instalment of the entomological remains 
of the late William Buckler. William Buoklee was 
by profession an artist, devoting himself especially to 
painting portraits and mainly to miniatures. The 
improvements in photography slowly but surely de- 
stroyed the occupation of the painter of miniatures, 
and William Buckler found when he reached middle 
life that what had hitherto been his occupation was at 
an end. 

In 1857, the artist who had been for some years 
depicting the larvae of Micro-Lepidoptera for the 
6 Natural History of the Tineina J abruptly discontinued 
that work and it became necessary to find, with as 
little delay as possible, a fresh artist. 

An urgent appeal was made in the c Entomologist's 
Weekly Intelligencer, ' of July 11th, 1857 (Vol. II, p. 
113), and in answer to that call for help William 
Buckler replied and offered his services, which were 
thankfully accepted. He was then residing near Ems- 
worth in South Hampshire (on the very borders of 
Sussex), and had been for some years devoting his 
attention to entomology. 



VI PREFACE. 

He continued to labour at his new task of painting 
the portraits of the larva? of the Tineina with unremit- 
ting energy for about three years, but then begged to 
be relieved of the occupation, as he found it interfered 
seriously with his time and prevented him from keep- 
ing any engagements he might have made with his 
friends. 

The amount of pains and close attention he bestowed 
on the small larva? he was figuring has caused many of 
his portraits to be masterpieces of artistic representa- 
tation, and had he depicted no other larvse than those 
of the Tineina his reputation as an entomological 
artist would have stood deservedly high. 

Before he ceased working for the ' Natural History 
of the Tineina ' he had begun as far back as 1858 
to figure larva? of the larger Lepidoptera for his 
own amusement, probably at first without any very 
definite object, but as the numbers of his figures in- 
creased he began to take a special interest in obtaining 
larva? which he had not previously seen, and owing to 
the exertions which have of late years been made by 
many observant entomologists in all parts of the country 
to obtain deposits of eggs from any female Lepidoptera 
they happened to capture, many species were seen in 
the larva state for the first time, and these larva? thus ob- 
tained were carefully figured and in many cases minutely 
described by William Buckler. I may here mention 
that in the work of description, Mr. Buckler was, so to 
speak, self-taught, for living in complete retirement as 
he did for nearly the last thirty years of his life, he had 
little access to entomological libraries, where the records 
of the labours of former workers afford an advanced 
starting-point for those who can avail themselves of 



PREFACE. Vll 

such help ; indeed the increasing mastery he gained 
over this part of his work can be seen by comparing his 
earlier and later papers ; hence it may be said that at 
no time were his labours more valuable than just when 
he was taken away. 

It would occasionally happen that in some groups 
he had already figured the larvae of all the rarer species 
before he turned his attention to the commoner kinds, 
with regard to which the natural feeling prevailed 
that they could be taken up at any time. 

For many years past Mr. Buckler had been in the 
habit of urging his numerous correspondents to procure 
for him this or that larva, and when at last some much- 
desired insect was obtained in the egg state it might 
chance that a lack of knowledge of the proper food 
of the larva led to the loss of the young broods after 
their exclusion from the egg. It will be seen at pp. 
113, 114 of this volume that the larvse of a compara- 
tively common butterfly, Polyommatus {Lyccena) Mgon, 
narrowly escaped starvation from this cause, and to 
this day some mystery seems to prevail as to the 
proper food of the larva of the rarer Polyommatus 
(Lyccena) Arion, for though when quite young it eats 
readily enough the flowers of thyme it seems at a 
certain stage of its growth to require something else 
(see p. 190). 

Out of the sixty-three species of butterflies which 
now occur in this country (for I fear that Ghrysophanus 
dispar must certainly be looked on as extinct) Mr. 
Buckler succeeded in figuring the larva? of fifty-eight, 
which to all who know the very retired habits of 
many of these creatures will seem a very large propor- 
tion. For three species of larva? out of the fifty-eight 



Vlll PREFACE. 

he was indebted to his Continental correspondents ; it 
was only in the two or three last years of his life that 
he had ventured to look across the Channel for help, 
but it was thus that he obtained the larvae of Pier Is 
Daplidice, Vanessa Antiopa, and Sterojpes Paniscus. 
The five species of our butterflies of which Mr. Buckler 
never succeeded in obtaining any figures of the larvae 
were Golias Hyale, Argynnis Latlionia, Polyommatus 
(Lycwna) Acis and Arion i and Pamfhila comma; of 
these, therefore, there are no figures in this volume. 

Mr. Buckler, as will be seen from the letterpress of 
this volume, had already published in the pages of the 
e Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ' a number of his 
descriptions of the larvae, and these descriptions are 
here reprinted. But of many species his observations 
were not sufficiently complete to induce him to lay them 
before the public, and in this case we have had recourse 
to his Manuscript Note-Books, and possibly in some 
cases we may have printed matter which he had no 
wish should appear in type ; this must always be a 
difficulty attending any posthumous publication. 

When Mr. Buckler died, after a very short illness, 
on the 9th of January, 1884, it seemed highly desirable 
that the labours of half a lifetime should not be lost to 
science, and the Council of the Ray Society entered 
into negotiations with Mr. Buckler's executor, Mr. 
James Terry, of Emsworth (with whom he had resided 
for many years), for the purchase of the drawings and 
MS. notes. These negotiations were happily concluded 
and the result is the publication of the first of a series 
of volumes in which Mr. Buckler's figures and descrip- 
tions will be reproduced in a collective and systematic 
form. 



PREFACE. IX 

Unfortunately, of many comparatively common 
species, which had long ago been carefully figured both 
in the larva and pupa state by William Buckler, no 
descriptive notes had been published by him, nor were 
any found amongst his papers ; it was necessary, 
therefore, to try and supply to some extent these 
omissions. 

From the year 1858 down to his death in January, 
1884, William Buckler had been in constant correspond- 
ence with the Eev. John Hellins, M. A., of Exeter ; they 
studied the larvae separately, but compared their notes, 
and before any of Buckler's descriptions appeared in 
print the manuscript was sent to Mr. Hellins for care- 
ful and conscientious revision. The two thus worked 
together more than is ordinarily the case ; of many 
larvee Hellins wrote the descriptions and sent them 
to Buckler for his critical scrutiny, and they were then 
published under the name of John Hellins. 

Hence in the body of this volume the authorship of 
the descriptions which had been already published 
pertains sometimes to Buckler and sometimes to 
Hellins. 

The letters W. B. or J. H. after each description 
indicate the name of the writer; the figures imme- 
diately following give the date when the description 
was written for publication, and the reference that 
follows is to the volume and page of the 6 Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine ;' thus at page 8, we see " W. B., 28, 
2, 82; E.M.M. XVIII, 244;" which stands for "Wil- 
liam Buckler, 28th February, 1882 ; ' Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine,' vol. xviii, page 244 ;" and at page 
19 we see "J. H., 14, 12, 69; E.M.M. VI, 232;" 
which stands for " John Hellins, 14th December, 



X PREFACE. 

1869 ; ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine/ vol. vi, 
p. 232." 

Those descriptions which had not been previously 
published bear only the references to Mr. Buckler's 
Note-Books, of which he left four volumes. 

To supply the gaps in the present volume, owing to 
the omission of Mr. Buckler to prepare descriptions of 
many of the larvae which he had figured, recourse has 
been had to the kind services of his former coadjutor, 
the Rev. John Hellins, who, while the printing of the 
earlier portion of the volume was in progress, was most 
assiduous in collecting from many of his friends a 
mass of material which appears in the Appendix (see 
pp. 145—198). 

In spite, however, of all that Mr. Hellins and his 
numerous correspondents could do, descriptions of a 
few larvae (Aporia Cratcegi, Melitcea Cinxia, Thecla 
pruni and T. W- Album) are still wanting, though we 
give figures of them. 

I am well aware that with Mr. Hellins his work in the 
Appendix has been a labour of love, but none the less 
do I feel how very, very much we are indebted to him for 
his valuable aid. 

Till after Mr. Buckler's death I was not at all 
aware that he had ever contemplated the publication 
of his numerous drawings (altogether he must have 
executed more than six thousand drawings of larvae 
and pupae), but it seems from some written instructions 
that he certainly had had such a desire, and the wish, 
both of Mr. Hellins and myself, has been to render this 
posthumous work a worthy memento of one whom we 
loved and esteemed in his lifetime. It is in contempla- 
tion to issue, as soon as possible, a second volume 



PREFACE.- Xi 

treating of the larvse of our Sphinges or Hawk- 
moths. 

The plates of the larvse have been executed by Mr. 
F. 0. Moore, and every attempt has been made to re- 
produce the life-like drawings of W. Buckler; those 
who know anything of such work will appreciate the 
difficulty sometimes felt by our engraver in reproducing 
colour-drawings without the help of the instructions of 
the artist who made them. 

We are much indebted to Mr. Gr. 0. Bignell for the 
list of parasites bred from the larvaa of our British 
butterflies which is given at pp. 201, 202. 

I have .only further to express my thanks to my 
friend Mr. R. McLachlan, F.R.S., President of the 
Entomological Society of London, for his kind assist- 
ance in various stages of my Editorial labours. 

In conclusion, I cannot but remark what a stride 
has been made in our personal knowledge of the larvae 
of our butterflies in this country during the past thirty 
years, and must tender my best thanks to all who have 
contributed thereto, and must acknowledge the great 
amount of pleasure I have derived from their work. 

H. T. STAINTON. 

MOUNTSFIELD, LEWISHAM ; 

December 3rd, 1885. 



P.S. — In reference to the measurements used in the descriptions, 
it is almost unnecessary to add — that 

a line = "08333 of an inch. 

a millimetre =■ "03937 of an inch. 



CONTENTS. 













TAOK 


Papilio Machaon . . . . . 1 


Colias Edusa 












9 


— Hyale 












16 


Pieris rapss 












. 19 


— napi . 












20 


— Daplidice - 












21 


Leucophasia sinapis 










25 


Lasiommata iEgeria 










27 


Hipparchia Semele 










28 


Erebia Blandina (Medea) 










. 30 


— Oassiope (Epiphron) 










33 


Coenonympha Davus 










35 


Limenitis Sibylla . 










36 


Apatura Iris 












42 


Cynthia cardui 












49 


Vanessa Antiopa 












52 


— Polychloros 












54 


— urticse 












55 


Grapta -Album 












57 


Argynnis Paphia 












58 


— Adippe 












65 


— Aglaia 












71 


— Selene 












73 


— Euphrosyne 












77 


Melitsea Athalia 












81 


— Artemis 












84 


Nemeobius Lucina 










85 


Thecla rubi 










89 


Chrysophanus Phlseas 










91 


Polyommatus (Lycsena) Arg 


iolus 








94 


— Alsus . 










100 


— Arion 










105 


— Adonis 


, 










. 106 



XIV CONTENTS. 






PAGE 


Poly o in matus Alexis . . . . .111 


— iEgon 






. 112 


— Agestis (Medon) 






. 116 


var. Artaxerxes 






. 121 


Thymele Alveolus . 


* 




. 123 


Thanaos Tages 






. 126 


Steropes Paniscus . 






. 129 


Pamphila Action . 






. 135 


— linea .... 






. 139 


— sylvanus 






. 141 


— comma 






. 142 


Appendix 






. 143 


Gonepteryx rhamni 






. 145 


Pieris brassier 






. 148 


— rapas 






. 152 


— napi 






. 156 


Anthocharis cardamines 






. 159 


Arge Galathea 






. 160 


Lasiommata jiEgeria 






. 163 


— Megaara 






. 165 


Hipparchia Janira 






. 166 


— Tithonus . 






. 167 


— Hyperanthus 






. 170 


Erebia Cassiope (Epijphron) 






. 171 


Ccenonyinpha Pamphilus 






. 172 


Cynthia cardui 






. 174 


Yanessa Atalanta 






. 176 


— Io 






. 179 


— urticse 






. 181 


Grapta -Album 






. 182 


Thecla betulas . 






. 184 


— quercus 






. 185 


Polyommatus (Lycsena) Argiolus 


j 




. 188 


— Arion 






. 188 


— Corydon . 






, 191 


— Alexis 






. 191 


Steropes Paniscus 






. 194 


Pamphila linea 






. 195 


— sylvanus 






. 196 


— comma 






. 198 


List of Parasites bred from larva3 or pupse of British Butterflies . 199 


Index .... 






. 201 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES 

IN THIS VOLUME. 



RHOPALOCERA. 



Family PAPILIONID^E. 
Sab-family Papilionidi. 

Papilio Macbaon 
Sub-family Pieripi, 

Gonepteryx rhamni . 
Colias Edusa 
„ Hyale 
Aporia cratsegi 
Pieris brassicse . 
„ rapae 
,, napi 
„ Daplidice 
Antbocbaris Cardamines 
Leucopbasia sinapis . 
Family NTMPHALIDuE. 
Sub- family Satyridi. 
Arge Galatbea . 
Lasiommata JEgeria 
,, Megasra 

Hipparcbia Semele . 
„ Janira . 

„ Titbonus 

,, Hyper antbus . 

Erebia Blandina (Medea) . 

„ Cassiope (Epijohron) 
Ccenonympba Davus 

„ Pampbilus . 

Sub-family Nymphalidi. 
Limenitis Sibylla 
Apatura Iris 
Sub-family Vanessidi. 
Cyntbia cardui . 
Yanessa Atalanta 

Io . 



PAGE 



PLATE 



I, fig. 1 



. 145 


I, fig. 2 


9 


I, fig. 3 


. 16 


No figure 


No description 


II, fig. 1 


. 148 


II, fig. 2 


19,152 


II, fig. 3 


20, 156 


II, fig. 4 


. 21 


III, fig. 1 


. 159 


HI, fig. 2 


. 25 


III, fig. 3 


. 160 


III, fig. 4 


27,163 


IY, fig. 1 


. 165 


IY, fig. 2 


. 28 


IY, fig. 3 


. 166 


Y, fig. 1 


. 167 


Y, fig. 2 


. 170 


Y, fig. 3 


. 30 


VI, fig. 1 


33,171 


YI, fig. 2 


. . 35 


YI, fig. 3 


. 172 


YI, fig. 4 


. 36 


YII, fig. 1 


. 42 


VII, fig. 2 


49, 174 


YIII, fig. 1 


. 176 


VIII, fig. 2 


. 179 


YIII, fig. 3 



XVI 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



Sub-family Yanessidi (continued) — 
Yanessa Antiopa 
„ Polychloros 
„ urticae 
Grapta -Album 
Sub-family Akgynnidi. 
Argynnis Paphia 
,, Adippe 

, , Aglaia* 
„ Selene 
,, Euphrosyne 

Melitaaa Cinxia . 
,, Athalia 
„ Artemis 
Family ERYCINID^E. 
Nemeobius Lucina 
Family LYCiENID^, 
Thecla betulse . 
„ pruni . 
,, W -Album 
,, quercus 
,, rubi 
Chrysophanus Phlseas 
Polyommatus (Lycsena) Argiolus 
,, „ Alsusf 



Family HESPERID M. 
Thymele alveolus 
Thanaos Tages 
Steropes Paniscus 
Pamphila Action 
„ linea 
„ sylvanus 
,, comma 



Arion 
Corydon 
Adonis 
Alexis 
iEgon 

Agestis (Medon) 

„ var. Arta 

xerxes 



PAGE 

. 52 

. 54 

55,181 

57,182 

. 58 

. 65 

. 71 

. 73 

. 77 
No description 

. 81 

. 84 

. . 85 

. 184 
No description 
No description 

. 185 

. 89 

. 91 
94,188 

. 100 
105,188 

. 191 

. 106 
111, 191 

. 112 
116 



121 



. 123 
. 126 

129, 194 
. 135 

139, 195 

141, 196 

142, 198 



PLATE 

VIII, fig. 4 
IX, fig. 1 
IX, fig. 2 
IX, fig. 3 

X, fig. 1 

X, fig. 2 

X, fig. 3 

XI, fig. 1 

XI, fig. 2 

XI, fig. 3 

XII, fig. 1 

XII, fig. 2 

XII, fig. 3 

XII, fig. 4 
XII, fig. 5 
XIII, fig 
XIII, fig 
XIII, fig 
XIII, fig 
XIY, fig 
XIY, fig 

No figure 
XIY, fig. 3 
XY, fig. 1 
XY, fig. 2 
XY, fig. 3 
X VI, fig. 1 

XYI, fig. 1 

XYI, fig. 2 
XYI, fig. 3 
XVII, fig. 1 
XVII, fig. 2 
XVII, fig. 3 
XVII, fig. 4 
No figure 



* Argynnis Lathonia does not occur in this volume, Mr. Buckler 
never having obtained either eggs or larva. 

f Polyommatus (Lycana) Acis does not occur in this volume, for the 
same reason above mentioned. 



THE JjARYM 



OF THD 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 



Papilio Machaon. 
Plate I, fig. 1. 

In offering my notes on this history of this species, I 
know I am going upon ground to some extent already 
well trodden, and it is, therefore, not on the plea of 
telling anything quite new that I put them forward; 
but, knowing that there is now, more than ever, an 
interest felt in obtaining exact information as to the 
process of growth or development in the earlier stages 
of various forms, and being conscious that I have done 
my best in this case, I still hope that my work may 
be of use ; I only wish I could impart to others any- 
thing approaching the pleasure I myself felt in 
watching and recording what follows. 

In 1868 I had reared the larvae from two eggs found 
in Burwell Fen by Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, and two more 
in 1871 from eggs found by Mr. C. Gr. Barrett in 
Horning Fen, and had taken several figures in either 
case, but when, in 1879, Mr. W. H. Edwards, of Coal- 
burg, West Virginia, put some questions to me on the 
number of moults and other points connected with 
them, I found I could not give such positive answers 
as I could have wished. 

I determined, therefore, if possible, to rear the larva 
again, and Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher most kindly helped 
to bring my project within range of possibility by 

' VOL. I. 1 



2 PAPILIO MAOHAON. 

sending me three eggs on June 4th, 1880, which he 
had found the day before in Wicken Fen, and on the 
12th a few more, laid on Peucedanum palustre, but 
eventually three of these proved infertile. 

What follows is, of course, really the personal his- 
tory of the individuals which I watched, and though 
for convenience sake I shall generalise, and sometimes 
use the present tense and not the past, I wish it to 
be understood that I speak only of what I was aware 
I saw : I know I made one omission, which will be 
noticed in its proper place. 

The eggs hatched June 13th — 15th, the larvge in 
every case making their first meal of the empty shell, 
and for a day or two I supplied them with garden 
carrot, but after that they were fed entirely on Angelica 
sylvestris. From first to last each larva was kept 
separate, and its changes noted in a separate record. 

The larva, on first turning its attention to its food- 
plant, scoops out a round cell on the surface of a leaf, 
but after a few hours takes the bolder course of eating 
quite through from the edge of the leaf. It does not 
roam, but continues at the same part till the third or 
fourth day, when it moves off to some distance, and on 
a stalk or leaf spins a few silk threads for a foot-hold ; 
there it waits from two to three days for the first 
moult, and when this is accomplished eats the cast 
skin all to the head-piece, and soon after goes — appa- 
rently by design — back to the spot where it was pre- 
viously feeding and attacks the leaf again. At this 
stage I noticed that if a larva found a speck of 
" frass '' on its food, it would pick it up in its jaws, 
stretch out its body, and somehow project the " frass " 
away from the plant. Again, after feeding three or 
four days it retires as before, and prepares for and 
accomplishes its second moult, which happens on about 
the twelfth day of its life. Similarly the third moult 
comes on the sixteenth or seventeenth day, and the 
fourth (the last) from the twentieth to the twenty- 
third day, the cast skin being always eaten. After the 



PAPILIO MAOHAON. 6 

last moult the larva feeds on for ten or twelve days, 
consuming a great quantity of food, and making very 
rapid growth. I may here note that its usual attitude 
in repose is from the very first much like that of a 
Sphinx with the neck arched and the head bent down. 

The earliest age at which I noticed the curious horns 
of the second segment was when I touched the larva 
just after its third moult ; they were then much longer 
and thinner than they became after the fourth moult, but 
there accompanied their protrusion a drop or two of 
clear greenish liquid, and a most penetrating odour, 
which reminded me of an over-kept decaying pine- 
apple. After the fourth moult the horns were of a 
snorter and stouter character, but I observed that when 
I was holding a larva between my finger and thumb it 
had the power to lengthen one horn at the expense of 
the other (which became shorter) so as to manage to 
touch my finger with it ; the horns are extremely soft 
aud flexible. 

When full grown the larva ceases feeding and 
rests for a while, and then commences its prepara- 
tions for pupation by selecting a stem and spinning 
on it from side to side a number of threads to ensure 
a good foot-hold ; next, lying along these threads head 
downwards, it spins at the bottom of them a broad 
cone of whitish silk, having a sharpish apex; then, 
turning round, it creeps up the stem a little and with 
the anal prolegs feels about till they find this cone, 
when they are placed close together on the stem but 
touching the base of the cone, and a slight pushing 
motion is visible by which their circlet of hooks is 
fixed in the silk spun on the stem. Its tail end being 
thus fixed the larva stretches out its head and front 
segments, lifting up at the same time the first and 
second pairs of ventral feet, and bends itself back- 
wards in a wide sweep from one side of the stem to 
the other, as though to be assured there is free room 
for its movements. It next — while in this semi- 
detached attitude, and with its thoracic legs rigidly 



4 PAPILIO MAOHAON. 

extended — throws back its head, and in this way 
swells out its breast like that of a pouter pigeon, 
leaving a deep hollow between the mouth and the first 
pair of thoracic legs ; then it bends to one side of the 
stem and spins a broadish attachment for the first 
thread of the cincture, and presently with a slow and 
deliberate motion sweeps round as before to the other 
side, the head all the while wagging as the silk issues 
from the spinneret and is guided along the hollow above 
mentioned. As the head approaches the other side the 
body swells out still more, as though to stretch the 
thread and give it the necessary curvature. As on 
commencing the thread, so now on fastening it to the 
other side, there is delay for a little and the fastening 
seems to be made with a more liquid and glutinous 
quality of silk than the rest of the thread. The first 
thread thus completed, the larva proceeds in the same 
slow and methodical manner, spinning some thirty 
threads from right to left, and as many from left to 
right, or sixty altogether for the cincture, the time 
thus occupied being about one hour and forty-five 
minutes ; occasionally the first pair of thoracic legs 
seem to be made use of to assist at the fastening of 
the ends of the threads. When enough threads have 
been spun the larva seems to test their strength by 
pulling them quite taut with its projecting breast, two 
or three times, and then, apparently satisfied, it bends 
down its head to put it under the cincture, and creeps 
up inside it till it hangs loosely round its back between 
the sixth and seventh segments ; next it seems to 
relieve itself by stretching upward all the front seg- 
ments that had been so engaged during the spinning, 
and in a few minutes settles into a quiet posture, with 
head bent down and legs brought close to the stem. 

Thus it rests, and meanwhile the segments of the 
body shorten and their divisions deepen ; the head 
becomes bent down close to the stem, while the body is 
held away from it as far as the cincture allows, drawn 
tight as it is into the deep division between the sixth 



PAPTLIO MACHAON. O 

and seventh segments, so that only the head and tail are 
in contact with the stem. At the end of about a day 
and a half suddenly the head and front segments are 
jerked backwards four or five times in succession, next 
the belly is brought close to the stem and the head 
held up, and then in about five minutes the skin splits 
open behind the head on the top of the back, and the 
pupal thorax appears bulging out; presently is dis- 
closed the top of the head, then the upper part of the 
face, and with a few nodding motions the head is 
freed, and the skin slowly but easily slides downwards 
from each side (the cincture causing not the least 
impediment), and as it goes drags away like little 
threads the linings of the spiracles. Presently from 
out of the collapsing skin is disclosed the tip of the 
tail, and there is just time allowed for the observer to 
see that it is quite hollow, when in another moment it 
is fitted upon the cone of silk and strongly pressed 
down, and with a repeated half-screwing motion the 
attachment is made complete ; meanwhile the moisture 
which exudes from the pupal surface has surrounded 
and fairly embedded the cincture at its line of contact 
with the back. 

The old shrivelled skin now rests in a heap between 
the lower part of the abdomen and the stem, but is 
presently, by a slight twisting movement on the part 
of the pupa, caused to drop off ; the head and thorax 
gradually develop themselves, the former into two 
largish blunt diverging processes, the latter into a 
central bluntly projecting eminence, with another on 
either side ; the larval tubercles remain as small blunt 
conical protuberances, the wing-covers form an angular 
outline, and the back becomes dull and rough; just 
four minutes elapse from the bursting of the larval 
skin to the full disclosure.* 

The egg of Machaon is globular, having a depression 
at the base in contact with the leaflet on which it 

* I must express my regret that I forgot to look for the connecting 
membrane, which was discovered in Pieris and Vanessa by Dr. Osborne, 



6 PAPILIO MAOHAON. 

adheres ; it is of a good size and with apparently 
smooth surface, and when firsfc laid is of a greenish- 
yellow colour quickly turning green, and soon after 
tinged with violet-brownish, gradually deepening to 
purplish, and faintly showing the embryo through the 
shell, which in a day or two turns entirely purplish- 
black, a process of change similar to that shown by a 
ripening black currant. The shell next assumes a light 
pearly transparency, and the dark embryonic larva 
coiled round within is plainly visible, and in a few 
hours hatches. 

The newly hatched larva is 3 mm. long, stoutish, 
with shining black head and black velvet body with 
dark green segmental divisions, and conspicuously 
marked with a patch of creamy-white on the seventh 
and eighth segments. The pale pinkish tubercles, in 
some instances yellowish, rather bristly, are in two 
rows down either side, and in about eight hours turn 
dark drab, and in a day or so blackish like the third 
row beneath, except those on the white patch which 
remain white. 

After the first moult, in three days the length is 8 
or 9 mm., the stoutness in proportion ; the head black 
and the body velvety -black bearing two orange dots on 
the front margin of the second segment ; the shining, 
rather pointed, black tubercles having their bases red- 
dish-ochreous, after being for a day or so green ; the 
white patch as before, but now bearing black tips on 
the tubercles. 

After the second moult, the length by the third day 
has increased to 14 mm. with increase of stoutness ; 
the black shining head is marked on the face with a 
yellow chevron, and with pale yellow upper lip and 
bases of papillae ; the black velvety body has the white 
patch yet more conspicuous and encroaching a trifle 
on the ninth segment ; the front dorsal margin of the 
second segment is marked with orange-yellow, and 

and described by him in the ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' 
vol. xv, page 59. 



PAPILIO MACHAON. 7 

minute twin dorsal bright yellow dots are on the third 
and fourth, and a faint, narrow, transverse divisional 
streak of yellowish or greyish between them ; other 
similar short streaks occur on the ninth and tenth. Of 
the three rows of conical black tubercles on each side 
of the body, the two top rows have their upper bases 
half ringed with bright orange colour (excepting those 
on the white patch, which have pale yellow), the lower 
third row have orange bases like slanting slashes ; the 
anterior legs are whitish, tipped and spotted above 
with black, each ventral proleg with a white crescentic 
mark above the foot ; and there is some white on the 
anal flap. 

After the third moult, in two or three days the 
length is 22 mm. and the thickness in proportion; the 
design, now more developed, shows the head yellow 
marked with black, and the horns when protruded are 
orange-red ; the ground colour is of the palest greenish- 
yellow, though it is still white on the seventh and 
eighth segments, but showing only in transverse rings 
a little wider than the very narrow greenish-yellow 
ones round the others ; for the middle of each segment 
is transversely banded with velvety-black, but more nar- 
rowly on those two with white ground. The segmental 
divisions are greyish-black ; the black velvety bands are 
intersected by three lines of the ground colour bearing 
the orange tubercles with black bristly apices, except 
on the thoracic segments, where the black bands are 
broadest and only broken below, as on them the upper 
tubercles are completely surrounded with black; all 
the legs are white marked with black. 

After the fourth moult, the length in two days is 31 
mm., and in five more days is 46 mm. and very stout; 
its size and beauty of colouring being now at their 
greatest. The thoracic segments swell upwards in a 
rounded arch from the fourth which is the largest, and 
viewed from above sharply taper thence to the head, 
which is the smallest and bends downwards. The colour 
of the head is bright yellow with a black oval spot on the 



8 PAPILIO MAOHAON. 

face and two black streaks down either side, the ocelli in 
a black patch below, the mouth marked with black in 
the centre and on each side, papillse whitish. On the 
front marginal ridge of the second segment occur two 
orange spots and two black spots in front of them close 
to the head, and between these pairs of spots is the 
concealed orifice whence the retractile soft fleshy horns, 
of pinkish-red colour, dart forth when the larva is irri- 
tated ; and when seen at this period they are uniformly 
stout with blunt diverging extremities. The ground 
colour of the smooth skin of the body is a very brilliant 
pale yellow-green, becoming white on the belly and 
ventral feet ; the segmental divisions widely banded 
with deep purplish edged with velvety black, and across 
the middle of each segment is a broad velvety-black 
band, covered with excessively fine bristly pubescence 
and bearing the orange tubercle of the upper row near 
the front margin, and sometimes also that of the middle 
row ; but generally this transverse black band is inter- 
rupted by an isthmus (so to speak) of the ground 
colour which bears this tubercle ; and below there is 
always a slanting isthmus of ground colour bearing 
the lower tubercle. On the third and fourth segments 
the broad bands have only this lower interruption, and 
bear the orange warts of the two upper rows (here 
diminished in size) in their middle. The anterior legs 
are white with black tips and joints ; the ventral pro- 
legs have each a narrow streak in front, a spot behind, 
and a large crescentic mark of black above the white 
feet, which have dark hooks. On the anal prolegs this 
black mark is purplish in the middle. The spiracles 
are of a blackish-slate colour, situate within the lower 
parts of the black bands ; the whitish belly has a central 
series of blackish blotches and narrow transverse bands 
in the deeply- sunk divisions. 

The pupa, when come to its full colour, is pale 
yellow on the back and abdomen and delicate light 
green on the head and wing covers. (W. B., 28, 2, 82 ; 
E.M.M. XVIII, 244.) 



COLIAS EDUSA. 



COLIAS EDUSA. 

Plate I, fig. 3. 

On the 10ta of June, 1867, my friend Mr. James 
Terry, brought me a fine ? of this species that he had 
caught with his hat. It measured 2-| inches in expanse 
of wings, and had evidently been, before hybernation, 
a splendid insect, though it was then in a worn and 
ragged condition. 

I placed the butterfly on a plant of Dutch clover 
(Trifolium rejoens) and stood it in a window facing the 
west, and supplied it with a little honey and water ; 
two days later I had the satisfaction of seeing ten 
eggs. The insect was then removed to fresh plants 
of clover, but the day following being dull and cloudy, 
no eggs were laid ; the two succeeding days, however, 
proving bright and sunny, she recommenced laying, and 
deposited about forty or more eggs. The weather again 
becoming dull, there were no additions till the 18th, 
when on fresh plants another large batch of eggs was 
distributed ; the following day the insect expired, after 
depositing the final egg on a spray of Lotus cornicu- 
latus, placed with the clover as an experiment. 

The eggs were oval, but very sharply pointed at 
each end, and were laid on the upper surfaces of the 
leaves in an upright position, standing on end. They 
were shining and at first whitish-yellow, rapidly turn- 
ing darker yellow, changing by the fourth or fifth day 
to reddish and in ten days to pink.* 

The young larvae were at first of a pale brown and 
afterwards dull green; some were bluish-green, and 
all with a line of whitish along the spiracles, then and 
afterwards assimilating well with the clover, of which 
they ate voraciously. Probably during my absence the 

* At that time being obliged to leave home, I had not the satisfac- 
tion of seeing the young larvae when first hatched ; but reports of their 
progress were duly sent to me, whereby I became aware of their 
beginning to hatch out on the 24th of June. 



10 COLIAS EDTJSA. 

supply of food had not been equal to the demand, for 
when I saw them, on the 6th of July, their numbers 
had greatly decreased and the survivors were cluster- 
ing on the bare stems of the plants they had stripped 
in the course of the day. 

From that time they were abundantly supplied with 
fresh food, and though their progress seemed satis- 
factory, it soon became evident that they had not been 
able to recover the check sustained when young, for 
they began to suspend themselves from July 16th, and 
change to pupae before attaining the size I had hoped 
for. 

The first perfect insect came forth on the 6th of 
August, and the others followed during about a week. 
They were most lovely examples of colour but smaller 
than ordinary captured specimens. 

After the young larva became green, they so remained 
through all their subsequent moultings, and no variety 
worth mention occurred in the brood. Their habits 
were rather sluggish, especially as they matured. The 
size attained by the largest was little more than one 
inch and a quarter in length, moderately stout, of 
nearly equal size throughout, rounded above and rather 
flattened beneath, the head globular and rather smaller 
than the second segment. The segments subdivided 
by transverse wrinkles or folds into six portions, the 
second portion the widest. 

The colour was a deep, dull grass-green, the dulness 
being caused by their being irrorated with excessively 
minute black points ; and each point emitting a very 
short fine hair, added a velvety appearance to the sur- 
face of both head and body. 

In some examples a darker dorsal pulsating streak 
was visible, though in general hardly noticeable. 

The larva was adorned with a whitish or else a 
yellow spiracular stripe, which was further embellished 
on each segment by a pink or red blotch in the middle 
of it and a black spot immediately under it, while a 
little in advance of the red was seen the oval whitish 



COLIAS EDUSA. 11 

shining spiracle. The legs . and ventral surface were 
similar to the back. 

The pupa was attached by the tail and with a cinc- 
ture of silk thread around it close below the thorax, 
after the manner of the Pieridi ; the head was generally 
upwards, though in some cases a horizontal position, 
or nearly so, was chosen. 

The pupa is moderately stout ; the thorax round and 
projecting on the back ; the head terminates in a sharp 
point ; the wing-cases are long and well developed, 
projecting below the abdomen. The colour of the 
back and body a very pale yellow-green, with a pale 
yellowish stripe on each side below the wing-cases 
on the abdomen ; on the underside, beneath them, 
are three minute black dots, followed by a stripe of 
dull dark red. The wing-cases of a rather deeper 
and yellower green, which a few hours before the 
insect emerges become suffused with red. In the 
centre of each wing is a minute black dot and a row 
of fine similar dots near their lower borders. The 
point at the top of the head is dark olive-green above, 
sharply contrasted on the underside with pale primrose- 
yellow, and both gradually blending into the colours 
below. (W. B., 9, 67 ; B.M.M. IY, 117.) 

In the neighbourhood of Emsworth, Hampshire, 
Golias Edits a appeared in great numbers during the 
first fortnight of June, 1877, culminating perhaps on 
the 11th of the month, when they were seen in all 
directions. 

The fields of clover and Trifolium in blossom seemed 
very attractive to these butterflies, and it was not 
uncommon to see them flying at each other ; once on 
the 11th I saw as many as six together in a confused 
flight, rising and falling by turns as they seemed 
battling together. I also saw one captured by a 
swallow. (W. B., E.M.M. XIY, 40.) 

On the 12th June, 1877, the Eev. E. T. Daubeny, 
of Bedhampton, kindly brought me a female he had 
captured, after seeing her deposit a couple of eggs on a 



12 OOLIAS EDUSA. 

spray of Lotus comiculatus, of which I at once had a 
small plant potted and the butterfly placed on it and 
exposed to the sunshine, when she recommenced 
laying eggs, and by 5 p.m. had deposited more than 
150 ; the next day was cloudy and none were laid 
until 4.30 p.m., when this female and another recom- 
menced laying on another plant of Lotus comiculatus. 

This individual female seemed certainly worn, never- 
theless I strongly incline to the belief that by far the 
greater number of those I saw on the wing at this 
time must have passed the exceptionally mild winter 
in the pupa state. 

The two eggs Mr. Daubeny brought me hatched on 
the evening of the 16th, those laid on the 12th began 
to hatch on the morning of the 18th June. 

The newly-hatched larva is olivaceous, suffused with 
deep pink, or it may be called pinkish- brown, the head 
dark or blackish brown. The young larva remains on 
the leaf on which it was hatched, and on which it 
begins to feed, only wandering to another leaf when 
too many larvse happen to be together. It is very 
quiet and still and eats white transparent blotches on 
the leaf. 

On the 21st of June, those first hatched had just 
passed their first moult ; their heads now appeared 
smaller in proportion to the body, which was longer 
and more velvety green, though still showing some of 
the pinkish-red tinge. 

At the next or second moult, which with the ear- 
liest examples commenced on the 25th, the colouring 
becomes darkish green, matching very well the colour 
of the leaf on which they feed ; for a few hours the 
head was paler, but soon after it became green like 
the body. 

By the 5th of July some had moulted the third time 
and were now half an inch in length and at first dark 
velvety-green, becoming gradually rather lighter green 
and showing the pale spiracular line. By the 18th 
some had moulted a fourth, others even a fifth time, 



COLIAS EDUSA. 13 

and were from three-quarters of an inch to one inch 
in length, whilst others were still small, under half an 
inch in length. 

On the 19th of July two friends, while gathering 
some of the food-plant for me near the shore, found a 
larva of Edusa on it, more advanced than mine reared 
from eggs in captivity, and this larva had spun up on 
the 25th and was a pupa on the 29th. 

On Monday the 6th of August, 1877, hearing that 
the second brood of Golias Edusa was flying in great 
profusion about the clover fields, I induced a friend 
to net me a few of the shabbiest females he could meet 
with, and he returned with about a dozen for me and 
as many perfect specimens for himself, and amongst 
them a lovely specimen of the variety Helice. He 
reported them to be in great abundance all over the 
field he visited. 

On the spur of the moment I utilised a little fresh- 
gathered Lotus corniculatus, placed in bottles of water 
and covered with glass cylinders, and also a growing 
plant on which the larvae of the first brood were still 
feeding protected by a covering of grenadine. By the 
evening I observed one of the best conditioned females 
had laid nine eggs on the Lotus in a bottle of water ; 
to these she added a few more, and when the larvae 
began to hatch these little sprays were placed in the 
middle of two fine plants of Lotus growing in pots for 
the larvae to find their food ; these were uncovered 
and placed in a window, and between them stood a 
small pot of common clover on which the butterfly had 
been kept a day or two and deposited several eggs 
before she was set at liberty. Without further atten- 
tion the larvae throve, wandering occasionally from 
one pot to the other ; sometimes I saw an individual 
or two on the window-curtain, on the sill, or on the 
floor, but not often. 

Their growth was very different ; the most forward 
had completed their last moult by September 21st, 
while others were not more than half an inch long. 



14 OOLIAS EDUSA. 

They continued to feed and grow, consuming a great deal 
of food, stripping bare the stems of plant after plant, 
appearing to be very hardy, not flinching in the least 
from any amount of water poured over them when the 
plants were being watered, apparently not noticing it 
in the least. On the approach of cold frosty nights 
they remained stretched out still and passive, seeming 
to feed only by day. 

On the 15th of October I found that one had changed 
to a pupa on the bottom of the window-frame in a 
horizontal position ; two full-fed larvae had also 
crawled on to the perpendicular frame of one of the 
lower panes of the window, another also on the corre- 
sponding frame of the same pane. On looking the 
next day I saw that this one was head downward, but 
the following day it had its head upward like the other 
two larvae, which still remained and were indeed fixed, 
their cinctures being distinctly seen. 

October 22nd. — I happened during the morning to 
look at one of the two spun-up larvse above mentioned, 
and saw that its head was no longer bent down but 
stretched out in a line with the body, and that it was 
moving it forwards and from side to side. In a few 
seconds the skin broke away from the back of the head 
in the centre, and split open down the centre of the 
back, from which it slid away down each side, exposing 
four segments of the soft yellow-green surface ; and 
now the head-piece split in two from the crown to the 
mouth, each half seemingly pushed aside by a conical 
projection growing rapidly out of each cheek. A few 
heavings of the front parts soon caused the larval 
head-piece to shrink away from the head of the pupa, 
still attached to the skin, which kept sliding away 
downwards and backwards; after the skin had slid 
away from under the cincture on the back, a heave 
upwards of the larva caused the cincture to sink in and, 
as it were, to become firmly embedded in the yet soft 
surface of the pupa. Up to this point the operation 
had lasted seven minutes. 



OOLIAS EDUSA. 15 

The hinder segments now continued to heave a little, 
which brought the old skin of the larva farther and 
farther behind, until at length, with a slight dexterous 
twist, it came off the last segment and remained 
shrivelled up close to the tail of the pupa. Four 
minutes more had now elapsed, and presently the beak 
was by degrees developing itself in front of the head, 
while the keel of the thorax became more and more 
sharply prominent, and the projections previously 
noticed at the cheeks took the less prominent and 
rounded form of eye-covers ; the leg and antenna- 
cases, which hung down in high relief at their first 
disclosure, were now sunk back, as it were, to the more 
level surface of the breast of the pupa ; at the same 
time the divisions of the upper segments closed up, and 
the wing-covers swelling out assumed their proper 
contour. 

These adjustments and the consolidation of the form 
and skin of the pupa occupied an additional twenty 
minutes. 

Another larva assumed the pupa form the following 
day, and by the twenty-seventh eight other larvae had 
spun themselves up. 

About the 10th of October (1877) Mr. C. G. Barrett 
captured a female Edusa near Pembroke ; he placed 
her on clover under gauze in his garden, and on the 
12th of October she laid some eggs, which I received 
from him the following day. These eggs hatched on 
the 27th of October. The young larva made its first 
meal of the egg-shell it has quitted, leaving only just 
the lower end of the shell uneaten. (W. B., Note 
Book III, 187.) 



16 COLIAS HTALE. 



COLIAS HTALE. 

(One of the few larvae of which there is no figure in 

this volume.) 

One egg, which had been laid loose, I received Sep- 
tember 8th, 1875, from Mr. E. F. Bisshopp. It was 
apparently smooth, but really ribbed and of a pale 
canary-yellow colour, reminding one of a canary- seed 
in miniature. This egg proved infertile and shrivelled 
within twelve days. 

Six more eggs were sent me by Mr. Harwood, of 
Colchester, on the 16th of September, 1875 ; they 
were laid on a spray of Medicago sativa ; they were in 
shape and colour as above mentioned, with longitudinal 
ribs ; they began to turn pinkish on the 20th, and 
three of them scarlet on the 21st, and dark grey a few 
hours before hatching on the morning of the 22nd. 

The young larva was of an ochreous greenish colour, 
with the rough head purplish brown, nearly black ; 
there was a faintly dark greenish sub-dorsal stripe on 
either side of the back. 

They fed on the cuticle of the upper side of the 
leaves of lucern, forming small transparent blotches, 
and it was noticeable that each larva remained on the 
identical leaf where it was first placed, and each time 
fresh food was given they had to be removed to it. 
On the 4th of October they moulted the first time. 

On the 12th of October they had grown but little, 
and were little more than one- eighth of an inch long, 
of a dingy green colour, with a slightly paler greenish 
sub-dorsal line and a faintly darker dorsal line, the 
spiracular stripe of a paler greenish than the ground 
colour, the entire surface sprinkled over with fine 
bristly blackish hairs, the head rounded and bristly. 
At this time they ate little holes through the leaves 
between the veins. 

By the 21st of October all three had got over their 
second moult, and were of a darker full green than 



OOLIAS HTALE. 17 

before ; the markings much the same, but the dark 
bristly hairs more conspicuous. They continued to 
feed in the same way as before until November, and 
then more and more sparingly until the 18th, when I 
found the largest was dead ; it was just a quarter of 
an inch long and very bristly. Another died Decem- 
ber 12th, and the last on the 28th of December, from 
mildew on the two hinder segments. (W. B., Note- 
Book III, 32.) 

On the 27th of July, 1882, I received four eggs of 
Golias Hyale from Herr Heinrich Disque, of Speyer, 
they were adhering to the leaflets of Trifolium. Two 
hatched in the morning of the 1st of August, another 
at noon that day, and the fourth two hours later. The 
larvae were offered Medicago lujoulina and Trifolium 
repens, and chose the latter plant, each taking a posi- 
tion on the midrib on the upper side of a leaflet, from 
which they moved to the right or left occasionally to 
feed, at first by eating away small portions of the 
cuticle between the veins, and the next day they ate 
small holes quite through the leaves between the 
veins ; these larvae were as before described. On the 
9th I noticed that they had passed their first moult, 
the day previously at least, perhaps earlier. The head 
was now coloured like the body, which was of a very 
deep and dingy green with a faintly darker dorsal 
stripe, and the spiracular stripe scarcely paler than the 
ground colour, the entire upper surface being thickly 
covered with a roughness of minute black bristles ; at 
this time the length was 4J mm. 

On the 11th one was laid up to moult, and on the 
14th had moulted during the previous night ; on the 
15th I observed its head to be rather lighter green 
than the body, which was very dark and dingy, relieved 
by a yellowish spiracular line ; the surface of the skin 
was thickly covered by minute, pale, tubercular, glis- 
tening specks, each bearing a short, pointed, black 
bristle. On the 21st all the larvae had been for two 
or three days laid up to moult, and in the morning of 

vol. i. 2 



18 COLIAS HYALE. 

the 22nd one had moulted for the third time ; it was 
then of a lighter green, but with other details much 
as before; the pale yellowish-white spiracular stripe 
was softened above into the green ground colour, but 
below it contrasted abruptly with the colour of the 
ventral surface ; the head and all the surface of the 
body were thickly set with short, pointed, black 
bristly hairs. 

Of the others one moulted a third time on the 23rd, 
and another on the 26th. The most forward measured 
by the 27th four lines and was thick in proportion, the 
spiracular line very pale whitish-yellow, the spiracles 
being outlined with black and situated on its lower 
edge ; other details as before. 

All began to hibernate towards the end of Sep- 
tember, but after a few weeks' quiet they one by one 
died off. 

Of four other larvse which had hatched much later 
from a second batch of eggs received from Herr Hein- 
rich Disque, which had been kept openly on a potted 
plant of Dutch clover, I lost two after their second 
moult by their wandering away from the plant ; the two 
remaining larvas were then placed under gauze, and 
they in due course moulted a third time and fed away 
in October, but first one and then the other died 
towards the end of that month. 

It seems thus impossible to rear this larva in autumn, 
the only chance would be to obtain eggs of an earlier 
brood if possible. (W. B., Note-Book IV, 163.) 

On the 13th of August, 1868, Mr. A. H. Jones most 
kindly sent me more than twenty eggs which he had 
obtained from a captured female, and although I failed 
with the larvas, yet I think my experience may be of 
benefit to anyone who may have the same chance 
another time. 

The larvae were hatched August 17th to 20th, first 
ate their egg-shells and then settled on Medicago lujpu- 
lina, in preference to Lotus comiculatus, Trifolium 
repens and prat ens e, with all of which I supplied them. 



COLIAS HYALE. 19 

They grew slowly, dying off one by one, till the three 
or four survivors were about one-third of an inch long, 
at which size they hybernated, but never began to feed 
again in the spring, and so perished in February and 
March, 1869. Perhaps the right way would have been 
to have kept them in a greenhouse, and fed them up 
rapidly without hybernation. 

The egg is of a long fusiform shape, one end conical, 
the other knobbed or like a bag tied round the neck ; 
the shell delicate and glistening, ribbed longitudinally 
and with very slight transverse reticulations ; the 
colour, at first a pale straw, changing to rich apricot 
or salmon colour, and lastly blackish. 

The newly hatched larva is of a very pale olive 
freckled with brownish; head as wide as the body and 
blackish ; on each segment a transverse row of clubbed 
pellucid bristles. After a moult it becomes pale yel- 
lowish-green, and after another a full green. And 
from this time to their early and lamented death my 
larvae remained as follows : 

Length about one-third of an inch, stout, cylindrical, 
uniform in bulk, head narrower than the second seg- 
ment. Colour a dull full green, head slightly tinged 
with brown, a whitish spiracular line, the whole skin 
covered closely with short black spines or bristles. 
(J. H., 14, 12, 69 ; E.M.M. VI, 232.) 



PlEEIS ~RAVM. 

Plate II, fig. 3. 

A full-grown larva was found on a garden wall, Sep- 
tember 17th, 1874. Its length was 1-^ inch, tapering 
a little behind and a little in front, the head globular. 
Its colour was a dull velvety, rather glaucous green on 
the upper surface as far as the spiracles, thence becom- 
ing rather paler. The dorsal line was of a deep, rather 
orange yellow, ending on the twelfth segment, and there 



20 PIERIS RAPjE. 

were two spots of this colour on each segment along 
the spiracular region, the spiracle itself being situated 
in the middle of the anterior spot ; it was dark red out- 
lined with black. 

The green surface was thickly sprinkled with minute 
black points of two sizes, the smallest required the aid 
of a lens to be seen ; these appeared to have no regular 
order beyond a tolerably equal distribution (no pale 
dots visible). The black dots did not extend very far 
below the spiracular region ; each emitted an extremely 
fine pale hair ; low on the side above the legs the hairs 
were paler and longer. 

The green head was also thickly set with fine short, 
pointed black hairs. 

The subdivision of the ordinary segments was into 
six rings, but they were by no means conspicuous. 
(W. B. 5 Note-Bock II, 124.) 



PlERIS NAPI. 

Plate II, fig. 4. 

On the 28th of June, 1874, I found larvae of this 
species on Hesjperis matronalis ; they were then half an 
inch long, but they grew very rapidly, and by the 3rd 
of July they had attained their full size of one inch and 
one line. 

The form was cylindrical with the head rounded ; 
the skin soft and velvety looking, of a rather deep 
glaucous green, with the dorsal surface irrorated as far 
as the spiracles, with very minute black points, each 
emitting a fine short hair ; the usual tubercular dots 
(i.e. the trapezoidals and transverse thoracic series of 
threes on either side and one on the side of the other 
segments above the spiracles) were greenish- white. 

Below the spiracles the ground colour is rather paler 
than on the dorsal surface, a faintly paler spiracular 
line separating the paler from the darker green ; on 



PIERIS NAPI. 21 

this line the black spiracles * are placed, each in a 
round, rather tumid, deep yellow spot. Below the 
spiracular line there are sprinkled some greenish- white 
(or whitish-green) dots with hairs rather longer than 
those on the back ; the head is of a more yellowish- 
green than the body and is marked with black above 
the mouth, the ocelli black ; the head is covered with 
minute black points and some longer pale hairs. The 
anterior legs are yellowish-green, the ventral and anal 
prolegs are the same colour as the belly but semi- 
transparent. 

The skin of this larva is really shining, as it affords 
a line of bright light along the body according to the 
position in which it is viewed, but the numerous points 
and soft hairs produce the velvety look. The dorsal 
line is just slightly paler than the ground colour, a 
very slender thread showing faintly over a rather 
broader and pulsating one beneath. 

The black points, it may be noted, are of two sizes ; 
the smaller and more numerous are only to be seen 
with a powerful lens. 

On the 4th and 5th July these larvae attached them- 
selves and assumed the pupa state on the 6th and 7th. 
The perfect insects made their appearance on the 15th 
and 17th of July, 1874. (W. B., Note-Book II, 79.) 



PlEEIS DAPLIDICE. 

Plate III, fig. 1. 

On the 18th August, 1882, I received from Herr 
Heinrich Disque, of Speyer, thirty-three eggs of this 
species (along with the dead parent butterfly) laid on 
the flowers, leaves, and stems of a species of Reseda. 

The egg is laid standing on end and is about the 
same size and red colour as an anther of the flower of 
the plant on which it is laid, but can be detected by 



22 PIEEIS DAPLIDICE. 

the glistening of the twelve or fourteen rather promi- 
nent ribs which it bears ; in shape it is much like that 
of an acorn without the cup and is of a bright pinkish - 
red colour. 

In the afternoon of the 19th of August they began 
to hatch ; the newly -hatched larva was red with a black 
glossy head and rather glistening body, which seen 
through a powerful lens showed minute blackish dots 
and bristly black hairs ; it made its first meal of the 
egg-shell, which it consumed more or less immediately 
on emerging. 

On the 22nd I saw that many had died probably 
from too close confinement in combination with the 
dampness of the plant ; being such exceedingly small 
creatures they should have been placed on a potted 
plant, but this provision could not be made in time for 
them. 

The survivors had been feeding, some on the blos- 
soms, others on the leaves, in which they made little 
holes within twenty-four hours from their quitting the 
egg-shell ; these holes they continued to enlarge till 
they became conspicuous, and by the end of the third 
day (the 22nd) the larvae had grown to double their 
size when hatched. Though they were still of a reddish 
colour there was a yellowish-green tinge showing 
slightly through the shining red skin ; the head was 
still black ; there were the same black dots on the 
body each with a black hair. 

On the 25th of August some of them were laid up 
to moult, and on the 27th they moulted the first time. 
The twenty survivors now fed well and grew rapidly ; 
the head being still black. Along the back was then seen 
a broad stripe of grey enclosing a fine whitish dorsal 
line ; the subdorsal stripe was yellow, beneath which a 
broad grey stripe formed the side and next was a yellow 
spiracular stripe ; the belly and legs grey ; the tuber- 
cular dots black, each dot bearing a short clubbed 
hair (as though with a head like a pin) ; the ground 
colour of the second segment was yellow, the dots 



PIERIS DAPLIDICE. 23 

rather large in proportion, and these dots as well as the 
entire surface rather shining. 

On the 31st August the larvae were again laying up, 
and on the 1st of September they moulted the second 
time. The head was now greenish-yellow, much spotted 
with black and with much black at and above the 
mouth ; the body much as before, darkish grey, with 
yellow subdorsal and spiracular stripes, much spotted 
with black, surface shining, the black tubercular spots 
each with a black bristly hair ; an excessively fine, 
paler whitish-grey thread formed a dorsal line. They 
were now feeding ravenously and ate some of the 
youngest leaves of Reseda luteola as well as of B. 
odorata. 

On the 3rd of September some of the most forward 
were already laid up for moulting again, and by the 
afternoon of the 4th two had moulted the third time. 
By the 6th some were 8 lines or 17 mm. in length and 
moderately stout ; the head yellow, spotted with black, 
with black hairs; the body above dark bluish-grey 
with subdorsal and spiracular stripes of deep yellow ; 
the belly green ; the warty black spots each bearing a 
black hair. 

On the 8th and 9th of September some were again 
laid up for moulting, and one moulted the fourth time 
on the 10th and most of the others on the 11th. At 
this time the most advanced larva was one inch long, 
the others from 10 to 11 lines. On the 15th some 
were 1 inch 3 lines in length, rather slender in pro- 
portion, the divisions of the segments and their sub- 
divisions being well defined ; the yellow head had its 
component parts delicately defined with light greyish, 
it was very round in shape and thickly covered with 
small black dots of two or three sizes, many being 
exceedingly minute, each emitting a black hair. The 
tubercular black spots on the body were also some 
larger than others, all very glossy, and each bearing a 
black hair. Low down on the side was another yellow 
stripe, but it was not very noticeable from its low posi- 



24 PIERIS DAPLIDIOE. 

tion, and from being interrnpted at each segmental divi- 
sion ; it passed over each ventral leg. The spiracles 
were flesh colour, with paler whitish centre, very incon- 
spicuous and situated on the yellow stripe upon the 
second subdivisional ring of each segment. The belly 
along the middle was glaucous and paler than the green 
beneath the spiracular stripe. 

These larvae were fond of lying at full length along 
the flower spikes, and several crowded together at the 
summit in amicable companionship ; often they would 
have the head downward, sometimes with the anterior 
segments hanging free. Their movements when feeding 
were slow and very graceful, as their flexible bodies 
accommodated themselves readily to any inequality of 
surface over which they glided ; they covered the stems 
and other parts with fine silk threads, which proceed- 
ing rendered their footing more secure. They seemed 
quite as partial to the flowers as to the leaves and thus 
varied their food. 

On the 28th of September one pupated on the leno- 
cover of a cylinder and another a day or two later. 
From that period, owing to the setting in of colder 
weather, the remaining larvae became torpid and 
seemed unable to move, and though a few fed a little 
occasionally and spun themselves up, yet they only 
became abortive pupae, dying in one or two instances 
after the larval skin had burst, and whilst the ridge of 
the pupal thorax was developing ; others dropped off 
the stems unable to retain their hold, whilst a few 
remained on the stems in their natural positions for 
some days after they were dead. 

It was evidently proved by this experiment that 
Dajplidice is quite unsuited to our climate, and is an 
insect belonging to a warmer country. 

The pupa measures 7 J lines in length, being thickest 
across the thorax and near the end of the wing covers ; 
the head bears a projecting taper-point in front ; the 
thorax is sharply keeled and humped on the back. 

When first disclosed the colour of the pupa is almost 



PIERIS DAPLIDIOE. 25 

the same as that of the larva, darkish grey spotted 
with black, and showing subdorsal and spiracular 
yellowish lines ; the sharply humped keel of the thorax 
is traversed by a pale yellow dorsal line ; the cincture 
appears quite sunk into the substance of the back and 
is only visible over the wing-covers. These last are 
greyish, having two darker dusky streaks parallel to 
the hind margin. 

After some days the grey colouring faded to whitish 
with numerous black dots. By the middle of Novem- 
ber one of the two pupse had turned black and was 
dead ; the middle of the abdomen had collapsed, but 
the other pupa lived and produced a male butterfly on 
the 14th of June, 1883. (W. B., Note-Book IV, 165.) 



LeUCOPHASIA S1NAPIS. 

Plate III, fig. 3. 

For eggs of this species I am indebted to the kind- 
ness of Mr. C. G. Barrett, and it has been with no 
ordinary pleasure that I have watched its transforma- 
tions ; for the insect has always been a favourite of 
mine ever since I began collecting — now some ten 
years ago. 

The eggs seem to be deposited singly; in shape they 
are cylindrical, very long, standing erect on end, the 
upper end coming to a point, which is curved a little 
to one side (reminding one somewhat of the shape of 
a cucumber), ribbed longitudinally — about four ribs 
appearing in any one view; colour a glistening yel- 
lowish-white. 

The larva when full grown is about three quarters 
of an inch in length; head globular, rather smaller 
than the second segment ; body cylindrical, tolerably 
uniform in bulk, but tapering very gently towards 
the tail; anal flap terminating squarely, and under 
it two very small blunt points appear; the skin 



26 LETJCOPHASIA SINAPIS. 

wrinkled, with six folds to each segment, covered 
uniformly, but not densely, with very fine short whitish 
down. 

Colour a beautiful green, the front segments minutely 
dotted with black; dorsal line darker green, edged with 
yellowish-green; spiracular line distinct, of a fine clear 
yellow, edged above with darker green ; spiracles indis- 
tinguishable ; belly and legs translucent green. 

When the larva is about to spin, it fastens itself, 
with the head upwards, to a stem of its food-plant by 
a little webbing at the head and at the tail, and with a 
thread round the fore part of the body. At first it 
rests quite flat on the stem, but after some hours it 
raises its back, and bends itself into a bow, the head 
and tail still fastened to the stem, and the thread round 
the body being much stretched; in this position it 
remains about two days, then it casts its skin for the 
last time (the threads which fasten down the head 
apparently being attached only to the larva skin), and 
becomes a pupa. The pupa when arrived at its full 
colour is very beautiful. In shape it is slender, very 
acutely pointed at the head, not so acutely at the tail ; 
the wing-cases projecting in a swelling curve to nearly 
twice the width of the body, and meeting in a blunt 
ridge; the head is thrown back, and the pupa rests 
with the wing-cases touching the stem, fastened by the 
tail and by the thread round the body. 

The skin is semi-transparent, the colour a lovely 
delicate green ; the abdomen rather yellowish ; just in 
the spiracular region there runs all round the body a 
stout pink rib, enclosing the greenish spiracles ; from 
this a strong pink line branches off, bordering the outer 
edge of each wing-case, and the nervures of the wings 
themselves are delicately outlined in pink. 

I received some eggs on August 2nd, and again on 
September 1st, 1866 ; the larvse appeared on August 
8th and September 6th respectively; full fed on Septem- 
ber 26th and November 8th ; in pupa September 29th 
and November 9th. The food chosen was either 



LEUCOPHASIA SINAP1S. 27 

Vicia cracca or Orobus tuberosus, but not both. (J. 
H., E.M.M. Ill, 210.) The imago emerged on the 
9th of May, 1867. 



LASIOMMATA iEGEEIA. 

Plate IV, fig. 1. 

On the 23rd of April, 1873, I received from the 
Rev. John Hellins, of Exeter, three larvae that he had 
brought through hibernation, having reared them from 
eggs. They were exactly seven-eighths of an inch 
long and slender, thickest in the middle, the head 
rounded; in colour a very bright green slightly inclining 
to olive, the dorsal stripe darker green, attenuated at 
each end, and having a faint paler central line within 
it, and margined by a line of greenish-yellow. 

They were feeding on cock's-foot grass (Dactylis 
glomerata). By the 28th they were an inch long, 
though one of them was barely that length. On the 
2nd of May one had become almost without lines, and 
paler; May 6th one assumed the pupa state, but one 
was still feeding on the 9th of May. 

The subdorsal lines are of the same greenish- 
yellow, margined above by a fine line of darker green 
than the ground colour; a little below run three 
parallel undulating fine lines of faint greenish-yellow ; 
the spiracles, which are flesh-coloured, being placed on 
the lowest of these lines ; the space between the two 
lowermost is the widest enclosing a faint interrupted 
fine line, a little paler than the ground colour. 

The whole surface is very finely pubescent, giving a 
soft velvet-like appearance; seen through a lens the 
fine tubercular hairs appear black, the rest greenish. 

Each segment is subdivided by transverse wrinkles 
into six portions, viz. five of equal width behind and 
a broader one in front ; on the thirteenth segment are 
two blunt whitish or flesh-coloured anal points. 



28 LASIOMMATA NIGERIA. 

The pupa is half an inch long, very plump, and of 
pale yellowish green; on the subdorsal lines, which are 
slightly raised, there are raised dots, two of which are 
pale yellow on each side of the broadest part of the 
back of the abdomen; the surface is smooth, but with- 
out gloss; the abdominal segments are scarcely indicated 
by any divisions. 

The butterfly came forth June 4th, 1873. (W. B., 
Note Book II, 1.) 



HlPPARCHIA SEMELE. 

Plate IY, fig. 3. 

Eggs of this species were obtained by Dr. Knaggs 
in 1864, and were sent to the Eev. J. Hellins July 26th 
and August 3rd ; some of them hatched August 8th, 
and others continuously for three or four days. 

The larvae were at first ochreous, with a blackish 
interrupted dorsal line ; they fed on Triticum reopens, 
were very sluggish, often hiding low down amongst the 
grass, and hybernated when about four lines in length. 
One larva only survived the winter, and this was kindly 
presented to me on the 13th of May, 1865, by Mr. 
Hellins, to whom I am indebted for the foregoing 
account of it. 

The larva had shown a partiality for Aim ccespitosa 
previous to my receiving it, it was therefore placed on 
this grass, being then about eight lines in length. 

On the 20th of May I chanced to dig up a rather 
larger larva of this species from a waste piece of sandy 
ground near the sea, amongst Air a prcecox and other 
small grasses, which rendered the task of rearing 
doubly interesting, in observing the habits of each, 
kept separate and on different foods. 

The captured larva on being placed under a glass in 
a pot with its native growing food immediately bur- 
rowed in the sandy earth, and the few times it was 



HIPPARCHTA SEMELE. 29 

seen on the grass were always at night, and each 
morning brought evidence of its doing well by the 
diminished grass. 

About the 14th of June these indications ceased, 
and on the 23rd I searched for the pupa, and found it 
in a hollow space a quarter of an inch below the surface, 
the particles of sand and earth very slightly cohering 
together, and close to the roots of the grass, yet free 
from them. The pupa was obtuse, rounded, tumid 
and smooth, the abdominal rings scarcely visible, and 
wholly of a deep red mahogany colour. The perfect 
insect (a $ ) appeared July 24th. 

The larva, reared wholly in captivity from the egg 9 
always remained on its rigid food, with its head upper- 
most when feeding, which at first it did both day and 
night till it was an inch long, from which time it fed 
only at night, remaining all day at rest on the grass, 
with its head downwards, in comparative darkness, 
amongst the lower parts of the stems. It never showed 
any disposition to burrow, though the soil was supplied 
for the purpose, until it was full fed about the middle 
of June. The butterfly (a $ ) appeared August 5th. 

No material difference existed between the two larvae, 
excepting that the captured one was rather less bright 
and distinct in colour and markings than the other. 

The full grown larva is an inch and a half in length, 
tapering much to the anal forked extremity, and a little 
towards the head, which is globular. The ground 
colour of the back is a delicately mottled drab, with 
longitudinal stripes broadest along the middle segments, 
viz. a dorsal stripe of olive-brown, very dark at the 
beginning of each segment, with a thin edging of 
brownish-white. Along the subdorsal region are three 
stripes, of which the first is composed of a double 
narrow line of yellowish-brown, the second wider of 
the mottled ground colour, edged with paler above 
and with white below, the third of similar width is 
of a dark grey -brown, edged above with black. The 
spiracular stripe is broader and of nearly equal width, 



30 HIPPARCHIA SEMELE. 

pale ochreous -brown, edged with brownish-white both 
above and below ; the spiracles black. Belly and 
legs drab colour. The head brown, on it the principal 
stripes of the body are delicately marked with darker 
brown. (W. B., E.M.M. II, 188.) 



Erebia Blandina (Medea). 
Plate VI, fig. 1. 

That I am able to offer a complete history of the 
transformations of this species is another example of 
the proverb, "Union is strength." 

For not to one only, but to several of my friends am 
I indebted for help. To Dr. White and Mr. LongstafF 
for the eggs, plentifully supplied to myself and Mr. 
Hellins ; to Mrs. Hutchinson and to Miss Pasley for 
sending me the surviving larvge reared by them over 
the winter, when I had myself entirely lost all my stock. 
As far as I can ascertain, only four larvae came to 
maturity out of the two hundred hatched last year, the 
vast majority dying in hibernation and at the first 
spring moult ; it can well be understood, therefore, 
how dear the satisfaction was, won after such loss, of 
securing this species. 

The eggs were sent to us at the end of August, 
1869 ; the larvse hatched during the first week of Sep- 
tember ; fed and grew slowly till the winter ; hyber- 
nated when between two and three lines in length ; 
resumed feeding in March or April, and attained full 
growth between the end of May and the middle of July. 
The food was for the most part Aira prcecox, but 
Mr. Hellins found that A. ccesjoitosa was eaten as 
the larva approached maturity. One imago emerged 
on July 15th. 

The egg may be called large for the size of the insect 
and is nearly globular, though somewhat ovate, in 
shape, and placed on end ; the shell is glistening, and 



EEEBIA BLANDINA. 31 

ribbed, but not deeply, with about thirty longitudina 
ribs, and with very shallow transverse reticulations ; 
the colour is pale greenish-yellow, afterwards pale 
pinkish-grey, speckled with claret-brown. 

The larva when small has the head large and rounded, 
is stout forwards, and tapers from the middle to the 
tail ; it is greyish with reddish-brown dorsal, sub- 
dorsal, lateral, and spiracular lines, the lateral lines 
being broader than the rest ; the spiracles black, with 
another brown line below them ; the skin covered, 
though not very closely, with short, stout, curved 
pellucid bristles. 

It hybernates when rather over the length of two 
lines ; creeping down the blades of grass, and hiding 
in the thickest parts of the tufts. Soon after com- 
mencing to eat again in spring, the larva assumes 
somewhat of a greenish tint, but after a moult the grey 
colour returns. 

In May one was described which had then assumed 
the last dress. It was three-quarters of an inch in 
length, stout in proportion, thickest at about the fourth 
segment, the back tapering somewhat in a curve, the 
belly flattened, with the prolegs placed well under it ; 
the head globular, scarcely narrower than the second 
segment; the anal segment bearing two not very promi- 
nent blunt points ; each segment bearing on the back 
five transverse ridges studded with minute raised warts, 
emitting fine short tapering bristles ; the head was also 
covered with still more minute bristle-bearing warts. 

The ground colour is pale drab, the warts being pale 
whitish-brown ; the dorsal stripe is blackish-brown, 
most intense on the hinder segments, and enclosed by 
two lines of a paler drab than the ground colour; 
there is a broad subdorsal stripe of paler drab, growing 
narrower as it approaches the anal point, edged above 
with a greenish-brown thread, and below with blackish 
or brownish dashes, that almost form a continuous 
line, the interruptions occurring at the beginning of 
each segment ; below this come two thin pale lines, 



32 BEEBIA BLANDINA. 

above the lower of which are situated the circular black 
spiracles, each in a little puffed eminence ; this lower 
line in fact forms a ridge, edged below with an inter- 
rupted brown line ; the belly and legs are of a some- 
what warmer tint of the ground colour of the back. 

The larva thus described continued to grow till June 
4th, when it was seven-eighths of an inch long, and 
stout in proportion, with its back deeper in colour than 
the sides ; and presently after this its colouring grew 
paler with a pinkish suffusion spread over it, and by 
June 22nd it had changed to a pupa, unattached, but 
placed in an upright position amongst the grass near 
the ground. 

Throughout its whole larval life this species is very 
quiet and even sluggish. 

The pupa is nearly five-eighths of an inch in length, 
the wing-cases long, the abdomen plump, thickest in 
the middle, tapering to the tail, and ending in a blunt 
flat spike ; the back of the thorax is rounded, the head 
and the eye-pieces prominent. 

At first the head, thorax, and wing- covers were semi- 
transparent, and of a pinkish-grey tint, the abdomen 
ochreous, with dark dorsal stripe and other lines, and 
spiracles also as in the larva ; but by July 10th the 
eyes became black ; the thorax, antenna-cases, and 
wing-covers, after passing through an opaque cream- 
coloured stage, finally changed to a dingy dark pinkish- 
brown. 

The butterfly, a very fine male, came forth on July 
15th ; but at the present date (July 19th, 1870) Mr. 
Hellins has a larva only just beginning to change. 
(W. B., 19, 7, 70; E.M.M. VII, 64.) 



33 



Erebia Cassiope {Epiperon). 
Plate VI, fig. 2. 

On Wednesday July 1st, 1874, I received from Mr. 
John Archer, of Workington, six specimens of this 
butterfly, which he had captured on the 29th of June, 
on the top of Green Gable Mountain at the head of 
Buttermere, about twenty-five miles from Workington. 
There the soil is peat moss, and very boggy. Some 
roots of Nardus striata also came at the same time, 
with a pale kind of moss, amongst which, intermixed, 
the grass was growing. 

Soon after the insects arrived four of them revived 
when placed in the sun, and three hours later a fifth 
recovered — so that one only had died during the 
journey. 

I had the grass at once potted in peat and leaf- 
mould, and placed the insects on it, covering them with 
some silk net (rather coarse-meshed) to prevent their 
escape, and I put them out of doors in the sun. They 
were supplied with a bit of sponge dipped in sugar and 
water, and seemed very lively, fluttering about. On 
the morning of Thursday, July 2nd, they were placed 
at an open sunny window, and at noon 1 observed that 
one egg had been laid on the net, extruded through 
and adhering to the outside; at one o'clock six eggs 
had been laid in a similar manner, and by three o'clock 
in the afternoon there were in all fifteen eggs laid, 
only one of them being on the grass. 

The next day proved dull, windy, and sunless, and 
no more eggs were laid and three only of the insects 
were alive. On the morning of the 4th July all were 
dead, and on again counting the eggs I found there 
were fifteen on the net and one on the grass, making 
a total of sixteen. 

The egg of Erebia Cassiope is rather large for the 
size of the insect, elliptical in figure though rounded 

vol, i. 3 



34 EREB1A CASSIOPE. 

at the top, rather larger towards the base, which is 
also rounded off and a little depressed in the centre ; 
it is ribbed. All were laid in a vertical position ad- 
hering by the biggest end. When first laid and for a 
day after it is a bright canary yellow, and in two days 
it changes to a slight tint of pale olive-greenish, but it 
is still very shining. 

On the fourth day (July 5th) the eggs were spotted 
over with a faint brown at regular intervals, the next 
day they were of a pale brownish tint, spotted with 
deeper brown. By the 13th they had become of a 
pinkish drab colour, with the upper end or top of the 
egg darker than the rest. On the 14th their colour 
had assumed a dirty tinge and their hatching seemed 
imminent, and by the evening I found that three 
young larvae were already disclosed, and other five were 
hatched by the following morning. 

The newly hatched larvae were flesh-coloured, with 
ochreous flesh-coloured heads, a faint purplish-grey 
tinge showing through the skin of their bodies. The 
larvae ate away the tops of their egg-shells, indeed two 
or three of them ate about two-thirds of the egg-shells, 
which were quite white and very clear and thin. 

The young larvae were at first offered Festuca ovina, 
Aim flexuosa, and Poa annua; this last bore slight 
evidence of having been a little eaten, though they 
were generally to be seen on the Aira flexuosa. On 
the second day one was found to be dead. 

Shortly afterwards I put them on some Nardus 
stricta covered with grenadine, but they all escaped 
through the meshes, having a fancy to feed on the 
summits of the grass leaves, which protruded through 
the grenadine. (W. B., Note Book II, 80.) 

The pupa of Cassiope is little more than three-eighths 
of an inch in length, rather thick in proportion, being 
less dumpy in form than Hyperanthus, but more so 
than Blandina. The colour of the back of the thorax 
and wing-cases is a light green, rather glaucous ; the 
abdomen a pale drab or dirty whitish ; a dark brown 



EEEBIA OASSIOPE. 35 

dorsal streak is conspicuous on the thorax, and there is 
the faintest possible indication of its being continued as 
a stripe along the abdomen. The eye-, trunk-, antenna- 
and leg-cases are margined with dark brown, and the 
wing nervures are indicated by the same colour. The 
surface is only slightly glistening. (W. B., MS. 2, 
6, 75.) 



CcENONYMPHA DAVITS. 

Plate VI, fig. 3. 

On the 22nd of August, 1864, Mr. Newman kindly 
sent me two young larvae of this species, which had 
been bred from eggs obtained by Mr. Samuel Hudson,* 
of Epworth, to whom I have been very greatly indebted 
for information concerning them, and their locality, 
and also for a plentiful supply of roots of their food- 
plant, Bhynchospora alba (the beaked rush), which 
kept alive through the winter, though the young larvae 
did not survive. But again I was indebted to Mr. 
Hudson, who sought for the larvae on the moors in 
the early spring and replaced my loss, having found 
several larvae feeding, one of which he once observed 
to eat a little of Eriophorum (cotton-grass) ; but the 
beaked rush is evidently its proper food, from the fact 
of both larva and imago being always in the low-lying 
boggy parts, where the beaked rush most abounds; 
whereas in the higher commons, which are covered 
with cotton grass, neither the larva nor the butterfly 
has been seen. 

The habits of the larvae differ much from those of 
the allied genera in being particularly active and lively, 
travelling much over their food-plant, an allwise pro- 
vision, enabling them to escape the inundations to 
which they are liable. The larva does not change 
much after the second moult, and when full grown, 

* Mr. Hudson described them as far as the second moult in the 
' Zoologist ' for 1864, p. 9252. 



36 CCENONYMPHA DAVITS. 

attains to an inch in length, the head being globular, 
and body tapering towards the anal forked extremity. 

It is of a bright green with dark bluish-green dorsal 
line, edged with pale lemon yellow, the sub-dorsal and 
spiracular lines are of the same pale yellow, but the 
sub-dorsal is edged above with dark bluish-green, and 
between those two lines is an interrupted streak of a 
darker colour, posteriorly with a slight tinge of reddish 
or pink, and the caudal fork is tipped with pink. 

On the 2nd of June a larva was attached to a rush 
near the top, and changed to a bright green pupa, 
which in a few days showed brown streaks on the 
edges and centre of the wing- covers and at the tip of 
the tail, so remaining until the morning of June 20th, 
when it was wholly dark brown ; and at noon the imago 
came forth, a fine dark specimen. (W. B., 21, 6, 65; 
E.M.M. II, 65.) 

Of the variety of 0. Davus, known as Typhon, 
I received two eggs from Dr. F. Buchanan White 
August 18th, 1871, which hatched on the 23rd and 
25th. These eggs were large and rather ovate-spheri- 
cal, very finely reticulated, their colour pale straw, very 
faintly blotched with whity-brown. 

The young larva is of a whity-brown tint, with 
bifurcate tail, and having the lines of the ordinary 
larva of Davus very faintly marked ; it is rather large 
when hatched and big-headed and less sluggish in its 
movements than the habit of Davus when more mature. 
(W. B., Note Book I, 130.) 



Limenitis Sibylla. 

Plate VII, fig. 1. 

I am very much indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
Barrett, who most obligingly sent me on May 14th, 
1867, several examples of the larva of this species, 
varying from half an inch to their full growth of one 
inch and a quarter in length. 



LIMEXITIS SIBYLLA. 35 

At first they ate the young and tender shoots of 
honeysuckle [Lonieera perwlymenum), and then the 
lower leaves, reascending to the top of the bare stem 
to undergo the process of moulting, with the exception 
of one small larva, that spun the edges of a leaf together 
and moulted within it ; thev then ate their wav down- 
wards as before, and kept on the sunny side of their 
food. They appeared to spin much silk along the stems 
during their career, and to partly secure the leaves by 
it in a suitable position to steady them during their 
repast, and, in consequence, their long spines in front 
became, in some of them, clogged and entangled or 
tied together bv the silk in their twining* progress 
among the leaves, though they appeared never wholly 
to trust themselves from the stem, as their anal pro- 
legs at least were always attached to it . As they reposed 
along the spiral stem or bent aside to feed they were 
verv eleeant creatures, assuming- the most graceful 
positions. They seemed to like the sunshine, and 
when exposed to it, appeared to be active and 
hungry. 

In structure the body is of nearly equal width, the 
second and anal segments being the smallest, the 
divisions and transverse wrinkles well-defined, the 
whole upper surface covered with transverse rows of 
minute raised points, and on the third, fourth, and 
sixth segments, a pair of long, tapering, branched, 
subdorsal spines ; similar pairs, but rather shorter, are 
on the eleventh and twelfth, while on each of the other 
segments, except the second, are a pair of very short 
similar spines, and two minute pairs of them on the 
thirteenth : a row of exceedingly small spines are visible 
above the spiracles. The spiracular region is distended, 
forming a projecting ridge below, armed with very short 
branched spines, a row of short simple spines above the 
feet, and a ring of them round each proleg, and on the 
ventral surface of each segment a central transverse 
row of them. The head has the crown elevated, and 
face sligvhtlv convex, the whole surface covered with 



38 LIMENITIS SIBYLLA. 

raised points and simple obtuse spines, with a longer 
and sharper pair on the crown. 

In colour the back is of a bright full green, blending 
gradually into a paler tint at the sides, the minute 
raised points yellowish ; a white spiracular stripe is 
conspicuous from the sixth to the anal segments, with 
a central yellow blotch on each segment ; the edging 
of branched spines white, beautifully relieved by a 
crimson or red- brown stripe beneath, beginning on the 
sixth, or generally the seventh, and ending on the tenth 
segment. 

The ventral surface is bluish-green at the divisions, 
and grass-green across the centre of each segment, and 
whitish-green on the two or three last segments ; the 
prolegs are tipped with pinkish. 

The head is pale pinkish or greenish, with a crimson 
or brown stripe on each side of the face ; the mouth 
pink, with the mandibles black; the whole face is 
thickly studded with yellowish obtuse spines, with a 
few black ones, the longest pair on the crown black. 

The subdorsal spines are reddish, crimson at the 
tips, where they are branched with black, and below 
they are yellowish. 

When full-fed the larva becomes rapidly paler, 
and then suspends itself by the anal prolegs to a 
stem* of the honeysuckle or other surface, and hangs 
with its body downwards in a sinuous curve, with its 
head bent a little upwards facing the abdomen ; it then 
remains motionless for three days, becoming whitish 
on the abdomen and remaining very pale green on the 
thoracic segments. 

In the course of the third day the creature seems to 
wake up, unbends its head, swings itself to and fro a 

* In order to ascertain the natural habitat of the pupa of this species 
Mr. C. G. Barrett visited Woolmer Forest on the 14th of June, 1867, 
and in the course of several hours' search found four pupae and two 
suspended larvae of Limenitis Sibylla. Of these, five were spun up to 
leaves of honeysuckle, and one to a leaf of Rhamnus frangula growing 
contiguously, and in every case were firmly suspended to a button of 
silk on the underside of the midrib of the leaf. Not a single specimen 
was found attached to a stem or branch. — H. T. S. [E.M.M. iv, 35.] 



LIMENITIS SIBYLLA. 39 

few times, then stretches itself downwards in a long 
attenuated line, which causes a rupture of the skin close 
to the head ; the skin then is seen slowly to ascend, 
exposing the bare and soft shining parts below, from 
which a flat and forked pair of horns grow out per- 
ceptibly as one beholds this wonderful process ; the 
skin continues to glide slowly upwards, and as the soft 
parts become exposed they are seen to swell out later- 
ally and to assume the very singular projections so 
characteristic of this chrysalis, the skin of the old head 
gliding up the belly marks the progress of the disclosure 
as the colour of the old and new surfaces is at this time 
alike, the new being, however, rather more shining 
and transparent. 

Occasionally during the bulging out of the soft parts, 
a kind of convulsive heave or two occurs, but other- 
wise it remains still until the creature is uncovered as 
far as the ninth or tenth segment, it then curves its 
anal extremity by a sudden twist laterally, and in a 
moment dexterously withdraws the tip of the anal seg- 
ment from the larval prolegs by an opening on the 
back of the skin at that part. At this critical moment 
one has time to see that the naked shining point is 
furnished with black hooks, and to apprehend a fall, 
but in another moment the pupa has forcibly pressed 
the curved tip with its hooks against the stem close to 
the previous attachment of the anal prolegs, and now 
it is strongly and securely fixed. 

The creature now seems endowed with wonderful 
power and vigour, it swings boldly to and fro, and un- 
dulates itself as if to gain longer swings, when presently 
the old skin that remains is seen to burst away and 
fall off, the chrysalis gradually becoming quiescent. 

The entire metamorphosis from the first waking to 
the last movement, occupied nearly seven minutes. 
In sixteen days the perfect insect emerged. 

The chrysalis is very angular, and its wing-cases 
very projecting, the dorsal surface of the thorax rises 
to a prominent ridge, and a little beyond it is a flat, 



40 LIMENITIS SIBYLLA. 

round, arid very projecting process on the back, and 
from thence to the anal tip the abdomen is slightly 
sinuous, and therefore hangs a little on one side ; two 
flat-forked processes project from the head. Its colour 
at first is a greenish-white, but it gradually darkens, 
and in a few days the thorax and wing-cases are deep 
olive-green, the centre of the back of the abdomen 
bright apple-green, its tip and underside being dark 
brown, which forms on the back a broad band, including 
the flat circular prominence at its termination^ The 
hare's-ear-like projections at the head are also dark 
brown, the nervures of the wings can be seen distinctly ; 
the portions that at first appeared quite white have now 
been transmuted into metallic adornments ; a brilliant 
golden streak divides the brown colour from the green 
of the wings, commencing on each side of the back 
of the thorax, and a golden spot is seen on each side the 
tip of the tail; three silvery spots decorate the underside 
of the abdomen, and the head and its prominences are 
embellished both above and beneath with similar spots 
and streaks. (W. B., 6, 67 ; E.M.M. IY, 33.) 

Some years ago Limenitis Sibylla was plentiful 
enough in the woods in this vicinity, and thinking I 
could at any time study its history, I postponed any 
attempt to obtain its egg or larva until I should have 
worked out other species sent to me from a distance 
and which I could not hope to have always at 
hand. 

But since that horribly cold and wet season of 1860- 
61, I have never seen a single specimen ; and appa- 
rently, as far as this locality is concerned, Sibylla (and 
I may add Apatura Iris also) was then exterminated. 

However, through the kindness of Mr. C. Gr. Barrett, 
and his indefatigable exertions whilst at Haslemere, I 
have been able to study and figure the larva, my notes 
on its appearance when full grown, as well as in the 
pupa [being those given above], having been already 
published (E.M.M. IY, 33), and I would now offer 
some account of it at an earlier stage, not as being 



LIMENITIS SIBYLLA. 41 

able to disclose something entirely new, but as de- 
scribing exactly what I have seen. 

The hybernaculum which Mr. Barrett sent me was 
placed as he describes it, " three or four buds down ' 
from the tip of a twig shooting out from the main stalks 
of a great honeysuckle-bine which climbed up a fir-tree ; 
the twig chosen for this purpose sloped a little upwards, 
but he could not discover any hybernaculum that could 
fairly be called pendulous. 

The one I have before me is made of a honeysuckle 
leaf, which had been first partly bitten through near its 
axil, and then securely fixed by its two edges for about 
half its length to the twig from which it grew, and across 
which its edges were firmly bound with a spinning of 
strong silk ; the remainder of the leaf curved off from 
the twig at an angle of about 40°, being divided along 
the mid-rib for about one-tenth of an inch from the 
tip — thus forming two little hare's-ears as it were — and 
from them up to the twig, having its two edges firmly 
spun together. Just at the point where this half of the 
leaf meets the underside of the twig there is a circular 
aperture, apparently designed by the larva for its egress 
in the spring. 

As the leaf withers, the hybernaculum assumes a 
puckered fusiform shape, scarcely more than half an 
inch in length, being convex on the upper outline, and 
scarcely concave below, with the middle irregularly 
swollen, and the little hare's-ears hanging apart ; but I 
am sure, from the firmness with which the whole struc- 
ture is fixed to the twig, it could not have swung with 
an independent motion of its own. Its natural appear- 
ance of a small shrivelled leaf clinging to the dry stem 
would readily escape ordinary observation. 

On waking in April, sooner or later, according to 
the season, the little occupant leaves its abode, but 
goes no farther than to the upper side of the twig im- 
mediately above the aperture it has quitted, and at this 
time is about three lines long, spiny, and is wholly of a 
reddish-brown colour. 



42 LIMENITIS SIBYLLA. 

Its first proceeding is now to cast off its winter coat, 
and accordingly it attaches itself to a spinning of silk 
on the twig, and by degrees crawls out of its old skin, 
which is left adhering to the silk, not shrivelled up, 
but looking still much like a larva. 

It is now a much fresher looking creature, and after 
feeding on the just bursting buds of its twig, it is by 
the beginning of May half an inch long, brown on the 
back, with spines of the same colour, and yellowish- 
white along the sides, on which the blackish spiracles 
appear very distinct. Just above the ventral legs it 
shows a reddish-brown stripe ; the legs and belly are 
rather paler brown. In a few days it again moults, 
and then assumes a miniature resemblance of the adult 
larva already described. (W. B., 1, 69 ; B.M.M. V, 
226.) 



Apatura Iris. 
Plate VII, fig. 2. 

It is quite as difficult to convey to others a due sense 
of my gratification in having been able to observe the 
wonderful larva of this imperial species, as it is to 
express adequately my grateful thanks to my kind 
friend Mr. Doubleday, for the two fine examples of it 
sent me on the June 5th, 1867, feeding on sallow — 
Salix caprcea. 

This larva is not slow in its movements, which are 
very graceful as it turns and accommodates itself to 
the various positions necessary to its progress amongst 
the leaves, eating rapidly and voraciously, cutting out 
a large portion of a leaf in a few seconds ; but it is 
easily alarmed, for a touch of the leaf or slight shake 
of the spray transforms it into a very different looking 
creature. 

Its structure cannot be well understood until it is 
seen walking or feeding ; then the flexile motions of 
the head become apparent, furnished as it is on the 



APATURA IRIS. 43 

crown with a pair of long forked, tapering horns, blunt 
at their tips, curved on their inner sides and concavely 
bent a little in front, and covered with raised points on 
their front surfaces. They are much like those of a snail, 
but not retractile or moveable, though when the head 
is rapidly in action, as is the case in feeding, the horns 
are displayed perpendicularly, or sloping backwards 
and forwards ; but they are horizontal when the larva 
is at rest or in alarm. The crown is slightly notched 
and the face rather flattened above, but a little convex 
towards the lower part where it is widest. 

"When full grown and stretched out the larva attains 
the length of two inches, is rounded, and tapering to- 
wards both head and tail, the anal segment terminating 
in an elongated, rather flattened point, which is, how- 
ever, divided and slightly forked at its extremity ; the 
prolegs short and thick, with a fringe of short hairs 
above them along the sides ; the segments are sub- 
divided into five portions, the anterior being much the 
widest, and all are studded with rows of minute raised 
points. 

When the larva is alarmed the segmental divisions 
and deep subdivisions disappear as it suddenly con- 
tracts its length, and are all drawn up so closely to- 
gether as to make the raised points resemble the pile 
of a rich velvet ; at such times, and when at rest, the 
head is bent down, the horns appear in a line with the 
body, the back much arched, thickened, and rounded, 
remaining a long time motionless, assimilating admir- 
ably with the leaf on which it rests. It reposes on a 
leaf, generally on the under side, but not invariably so, 
and spins a quantity of silk, to which it firmly adheres. 

In colour the larva is a bright full green on the back 
and sides, as far as the sixth segment, then blending 
gradually into a yellower green, with the three last 
segments much paler; the whole surface is studded 
with minute yellow points. 

On the back of each horn, and extending along the 
second, third, and fourth segment, is a subdorsal stripe 



44 APATURA IRIS. 

of pinkish or yellowish flesh-colour ; and on each side 
of the other segments, as far as the tenth inclusive, a 
thin oblique stripe of dull yellow, slightly edged with 
red, running backwards from the spiracular region of 
one segment to the subdorsal region of the next ; the 
most conspicuous is that which begins on the sixth and 
ends on the back of the eighth segment, being longer and 
thicker, especially at the end, which is bordered above 
by a purplish-brown or crimson mark; the raised 
points there being much longer and larger than 
those on the other lines, as they also are longer than 
those of the green surface. There is a pale yellowish 
lateral stripe on the anal segment, extending to the 
tips. The spiracles are red, and below them the green 
softens into a pale whitish-green, with a fringe of white 
silky hairs above the prolegs ; these last are of a pale 
transparent bluish-green, the ventral surface whitish. 

The head behind is the same colour as the back, and 
the face a pale, shining, whitish-green ; the horns in 
front bluish-green, which colour extends as a stripe 
down each side of the face ; the tips of the horns 
brownish-red, and a little below they have a few raised 
black dots. 

When full-fed the larva spins a large quantity of silk 
on the under side of the leaf, to which it attaches itself 
by the anal prolegs, and slightly with the anterior pair 
of ventral ones, and remains motionless for about four 
days ; it then relaxes its hold by the ventral prolegs and 
hangs down, suspended only by the anal pair, and 
within an hour the transformation to a pupa is complete. 

The form of the pupa is broad and flattened on the 
sides, the outline of the abdomen and wing-cases nearly 
straight, while that of the back forms a very obtuse 
angle, having a thin and rather sharp ridge, projecting 
to a point about midway, from which it slopes off to the 
anal point and to the head, which has a short, pointed, 
and flattened forked pair of appendages. Seen only from 
the back or front it would appear a rather long and 
slender pupa in comparison with a side view. 



APATUEA IRIS. 45 

Its colour is a very pale whitish-green, with whitish 
oblique lines on the sides, also nervures on the wing- 
cases and dorsal ridge. In 4;hree weeks the perfect 
insect was disclosed. (W. B., 8, 67 ; E.M.M., IV, 85.) 

Since the foregoing account of the full-grown larva 
of Apatura Iris was written, I have had opportunities 
of observing its development ab ovo. 

For the eggs, I have been indebted to the kindness 
of Mr. W. H. Harwood, of Colchester, and Mr. E. F. 
Bisshopp, of Ipswich, viz. a single egg from the former, 
received the 31st of July, 1875, laid within the three or 
four previous days on the upper side of a leaf of Salix 
cajprcea; and from the last named on the 1st of August, 
1875, four eggs laid July 29th on pieces of paper. 

The egg, as may be supposed, is of a good size, its 
shape cylindrical, of about equal height and diameter, 
adhesively fixed in an upright position on its flat base, 
domed on the top, its surface strongly ribbed, the ribs 
varying in number from twelve to fourteen. All the 
eggs were alike in colour when I first received them, 
viz. of a yellowish olive-green, having near the base a 
zone of purplish-black, the green portion semi-trans- 
lucent, the surface glistening. Those laid on the paper 
began to change on the 4th of August, by displacement 
of the black zone and the appearance of a blackish spot 
within the centre ; on the 5th the whole top grew at 
first cloudy, then blackish, the lower part paler green 
than before; this on the 6th became still paler, and 
the ribs whitish, and on that day, about seven o'clock 
in the evening, three eggs hatched, and the fourth at 
ten o'clock. The egg from Colchester hatched three 
days later, after previously passing through similar 
changes. 

When just hatched the larva has a large rounded 
head, and two distinctly separated anal points ; its 
colour is a light dirty greenish yellow, with three 
faintly darker lines down the back, the head is of a dark 
chocolate brown. 

The day after hatching each larva was resting on 



46 APATURA IRIS. 

the tip of a leaf ; each leaf thus tenanted showed that, 
at a little distance below the larva, a small portion had 
been eaten from its edge, on one side, quite through the 
whole substance. The larvae were now just one-eighth 
of an inch long, and on their rough granulous heads, 
could be seen, with the aid of a lens, two large, some- 
what bright, oval, smooth patches of paler colour, each 
with a central dark spot occupying the crown of the 
lobes ; the body light yellowish-green, faintly showing 
a darker dorsal line and slanting side streaks. 

When but five days old I found the Colchester 
larva lying dead, where it had been feeding on the 
edge of a leaf ; the cause of this mishap arose from 
the state of its food, which could not without risk be 
changed the day before, as three of the other larvae 
just a week old were fixed for moulting, each on a 
coating of silk, spun either on the glass cylinder or on 
the side or tip of a sallow leaf; tho other larva, not 
previously visible for a day or two, now made its 
appearance again, having already completed its first 
moult, furnished with remarkably long and stout horns, 
cleft at the dark reddish tips. This I noted as No. 1, 
a very lively and active little creature, roaming over 
the sallow leaves for an hour or two after its removal 
from the rest before establishing its footing on a leaf 
point. 

On the tenth day No. 2, which had been fixed on the 
cylinder, moulted ; on the twelfth day No. 3, on a leaf 
tip, had also moulted, both furnished with horns like 
No. 1. The remaining larva moulted on the thirteenth 
day, but appeared without horns, the head being much 
the same as before, though the colouring of the body 
was changed like the others, viz. to a bright green, 
with yellowish subdorsal stripes on the six anterior 
segments, and yellow slanting lines along the sides of 
the others, the points of the tail brought close together 
appearing very like one anal point, ringed with red. 
This hornless larva fed and seemed very lively and well 
up to the twenty-first day, when it spun a layer of silk 



APATURA IRIS. 47 

on a leaf,, on which it remained quietly for a couple of 
days, then at intervals struggling and contorting itself 
during two more ; however, in the course of the follow- 
ing day it died with its front segments rigidly curved 
backwards. 

From the end of August my attention was devoted 
to the three survivors, of which No. 1 had moulted a 
second time on the 21st of August, a third time on the 
28th, and a fourth time on the 5th of September, when 
it was a little over one inch in length ; on the 11th it 
fixed itself for its fifth moult on silk spun upon the 
glass cylinder, and measured then one inch and three- 
eighths in length; by the 21st it had attained its 
greatest length of two inches, and was stout in pro- 
portion. 

From this date, although continuing to feed well, it 
appeared to be getting shorter by slow degrees, and the 
few scattered purplish-black points as usual appeared, 
and by the 25th had greatly increased, forming dark 
blotches on the back of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth 
segments, the general green ground colour becoming 
paler. In the afternoon of this day it left its favourite 
silk- carpeted leaf, where latterly it always returned to 
rest after every meal made on other leaves, and took 
up a position on a stem, head downwards, the head 
and front segments hanging free, but in half an hour 
it removed to another stem, where in a similar posture 
it remained for about the same space of time. But 
here, as previously, it seemed incommoded by too close 
proximity with other stems and leaves, for it again 
moved off and ascended to one of the upper leaves and 
crept beneath it, and there, after resting a few minutes, 
it began to spin a coating of silk, leisurely adding to it 
at intervals during the evening, and probably during 
the night, as I noticed next morning some stout threads 
had been spun from the foot-stalk of the leaf to the 
main stem, firmly securing the position of one to the 
other. The larva now remained quite still, its head and 
horns in line with the body towards the stem, and its 



48 APATURA IRIS. 

tail a little way from the tip of the leaf, the back much 
arched, the anal pair of legs securely fixed in a pad of 
silk, and the first ventral pair clinging to the silken 
carpet, which they dragged off a little from the leaf at 
the point of contact. The assimilation in colour to 
the under-side of a sallow leaf was very perfect. 

Larva No. 2 completed its third moult on the 5th of 
September, and was then seven-eighths of an inch long. 
After this it was kept apart, feeding well, and attaining 
the length of about two inches by the 25th of the 
month, and on the 28th it had spun its carpet under a 
leaf, and secured itself similarly to the preceding. 

Larva No. 3 moulted a second time on the 3rd of 
September, when its length was just half an inch; 
from this time it fed very sparingly, often changing its 
position as its food was changed, until the 25th of the 
month, when I found it was hibernating on the stem 
of a twig, the hinder half of its body enveloped in a 
mass of silk where it remained immoveable ; only by 
very gently touching its horns occasionally as winter 
advanced could I be sure it was alive. 

Beyond keeping them in a room, of which the window 
was closed only at night, I was unconscious of any- 
thing I had done to stimulate premature development 
of the two larvse which so rapidly attained full growth ; 
certainly I attended to them carefully, and watched 
them with much interest, especially while feeding, 
an operation I noticed performed oftener by night than 
by day. 

After moulting the green colour of the larva was at 
first very pale, like the under- side of a sallow leaf, 
for a day or two, for which period it would remain on 
the underside of a leaf, until its green colour had 
become brighter and darker, when it would again rest 
on the upper surface of the leaf. After the last moult, 
and sometimes before, each larva had a special leaf 
spun over the upper surface with silk, on which it 
rested in such a position that its head was facing the 
foot-stalk, and bent down so as almost to touch the 



APATURA IRIS. 49 

leaf, the anterior legs drawn in close to the body ; 
sometimes all the ventral legs, and sometimes only the 
third and fourth pair in addition to the anal pair, had 
a footing on the silk. When hungry, the larva would 
quit this, make a rapid meal, and return again to rest. 
Some leaves were so ravaged that only the mid-ribs 
were left. Once I was rather surprised to see the 
larva No. 2 eat off a large strip from one side of its 
silk-covered resting leaf, together with the silk on it, 
but leave the rest untouched. 

Towards the end of September, a week of suddenly 
severe cold weather killed my two large larvae just as 
they seemed about to pupate, and unluckily before I 
could remove them to a hothouse ; the year had not 
ended, when the third smaller larva, of which I had 
great hopes, as being in a more natural state of 
hibernation, died also. (W. B., 3, 4, 76; E.M.M. 
XIII, 3.) 



Cynthia cakdui. 
Plate VIII, fig. 1. 

The following is the account of a curious variety of 
the larva of this species : 

On the 17th of July, 1865, Dr. Knaggs sent me 
(from Folkestone) a larva he had found feeding on 
mallow (Malva sylvestris). It was then half-an-inch 
long, with seven rows of spines, all black in colour, 
except those in the dorsal and subdorsal rows on the 
sixth, eighth, and tenth segments, which were pale 
primrose-yellow ; the head and upper surface of the 
body black, with a double dorsal stripe of pale yellow, 
and a stripe of the same colour above the legs ; the 
belly and prolegs deep olive-brown. Unfortunately, it 
died when about to moult, and though at the time I 
reported it as an immature G. cardui, yet my figure 
remained doubtful in my mind. 

vol. I. 4 



50 CYNTHIA CARDUI. 

Here there was an enigma, to settle whether this 
larva was car did or not. 

In the last week of September, 1868, the Rev. E. 
Horton sent me some of a number of larvse he had 
recently taken, varying considerably in growth, but all 
quite similar to the one above described, and found 
also on the same food, Malva sylvestris. The mallow 
plants were growing chiefly on the top of a hilly grass 
field near a hedge, and some in a clover field on the 
other side of the hedge, all within a radius of fifty 
yards ; and Mr. Horton' s attention was arrested by 
the mixed-up appearance of certain of the leaves. 

On examination, he found the edges of some were 
drawn together by threads, into a kind of purse, each 
containing a larva ; and he noticed that in every case 
but one, the larva was eating away the upper surface 
of the leaf within the purse. The youngest of those I 
had the pleasure to receive from Mr. Horton on the 
25th of September, was precisely like the figure taken 
in 1865, but had attained nearly an inch in length, and 
showed indications of a narrow, short, oblique-yellow 
streak, from near each spiracle backwards, and the tips 
of the yellow spines were black. 

After moulting the change in its appearance was 
very great, and its manner of constructing a kind of 
tent by spinning three or four mallow leaves together, 
with its habit of feeding concealed therein until its 
ravages had partly exposed it to view, and then 
abandoning its ruined abode and making another with 
fresh leaves, reminded me so much of Atalanta, that I 
now began to think I had been quite wrong in suppos- 
ing the species to be cardui. 

The growth was very rapid, the primrose-yellow and 
the black spines were replaced by others uniformly of 
a dirty greenish-yellow tint ; the whole skin of the 
upper part of the -body was now black, but the extra- 
ordinary and puzzling feature now assumed was a dense 
covering of pale grey hairs, nearly as long as the 
spines, and almost hiding them ; such a combination 



CYNTHIA CAEDUI. 51 

I had not seen before, but here I had larva? both spiny 
and hairy. 

I will here confine myself to. the details of one, which 
will do for all the others : 

October 9th, larva full grown, about an inch and 
five-eighths long, and moderately stout in proportion. 
The second segment bearing only two spines, sub- 
spiracular in position ; the third and fourth each 
bearing four spines, subdorsal and spiracular ; but all 
the other segments, save the thirteenth, bearing seven 
spines, of which the middle or dorsal one stands a 
little in advance of the rest, close to the front edge of 
each segment. All these spines are branched and 
bulbed at the base, and the subspiracular series formed 
the centres of fascicles of hairs nearly as long as them- 
selves. The body blackish above, with a deep black 
dorsal stripe, and a primrose-yellow stripe running 
above the legs, but hardly indicated on the thoracic 
segments ; the belly and ventral legs deep olive-brown, 
marked with golden- ochreous, generally much hidden 
from view by the grey hairs diverging from around 
the base of each sub-spiracular spine, which there 
interrupts the yellow stripe before-mentioned ; a little 
above the said stripe there is on each segment a slight 
streak of yellow, sloping upwards to the segmental 
divisions. The spines are dirty greenish in colour, 
with their bases showing slightly pinkish. 

The spiracles are greenish-grey, with black centres. 
The head black, and like the body covered with pale 
grey hairs. 

On the 10th of October the larva above-described, 
after first suspending itself to the top of its dwelling, 
left its cave and crawled to the gauze cover of its 
cage, and on the 11th suspended itself there, and 
became a chrysalis on the 13th. 

The pupa was about an inch in length, moderately 
stout, and of the usual Vanessa form ; its ground 
colour was rather dark brown, the abdominal divisions 
bluish, a narrow, interrupted stripe of ash-colour down 



52 CYNTHIA CARDUI. 

the back of the abdomen, and two broader, pale 
ashy stripes along the sides, the superior margin of 
each wing-cover pale ash colour, the antenna- cases 
and their knobbed tips marked with ashy, an obscure 
streak of the same tint on the middle of the wing 
covers, the spikelets ashy, but glossed with gold or 
silver according to the angle of light. The dark 
portions of the wing-cases blackish, the thorax and 
abdomen sprinkled with atoms of black. 

Early in the first week of February, 1869, Cynthia 
cardui came forth ; no doubt prematurely, from being 
kept in a warm room. My old puzzle of 1865 is thus 
made clear, but now, as Mr. Horton suggested, arises the 
question as to the how and why of the larva's hairy coat. 
Had these mallow-eaters become hairy through eating 
the downy mallows, whilst the thistle-fed specimens, as 
I have seen more than once, are clothed with spines 
alone ? Or, were they a second brood, thus clothed 
for protection against possible cold weather in late 
autumn. (W. B., March, 1869; E.M.M. V., 278.) 



Vanessa Antiopa. 

Plate VIII, fig. 4. 

On the 19th of July, 1883, 1 received from Herr Ernst 
Heyne, of Leipzig, four larvse of this species feeding 
on birch. The largest proved to be nearly full-grown 
and measured one inch nine lines in length, and was 
moderately stout and uniformly so, as it tapered a little 
only from the third segment to the head and a little 
at the thirteenth segment. The head is well notched 
on the crown and somewhat heart-shaped, the thoracic 
segments transversely subdivided, with deep wrinkles 
as usual in this genus ; all the segmental divisions are 
deep and likewise the three subdividing wrinkles at 
the end of each segment, excepting the twelfth seg- 
ment, which has but one, and that is less deep ; the 



VANESSA ANTIOPA. 53 

legs are all well developed ; on the third and fourth 
segments there are four rows of spines (the second 
segment has none), but on all "the other segments there 
are seven rows, that is, seven spines are planted round 
the middle of each segment, viz. a dorsal, which is the 
shortest and a little in advance of the others, sub- 
dorsal, lateral, and spiracular; these are long and 
pointed, branched, and beset rather sparingly with 
fine pointed hairs ; they have rather a formidable 
appearance. 

The head is black and slightly glistening, beset with 
a few black warts, each bearing a fine hair ; the skin 
is of a dull velvety black, without any gloss, but this 
shows plainly only at the segmental divisions and sub- 
divisions, being elsewhere clothed with a shining 
pubescence of greyish drab colour, which with the 
play of light on it causes the retiring portions to look 
quite pale, while the middle appears dark and dingy 
after the manner of a velvet surface. A strong lens 
discloses the fact that every single hair springs from 
a minute wart of the same pale colour ; in the middle 
of the back of the fourth and each following segment 
as far as the eleventh inclusive, is a dorsal mark of 
dark red, through which passes the distinct black 
dorsal line, though it is narrower in the red marks. 
These red marks are smooth and naked; the pubescence 
is a little curved and grows in varying directions, so 
that the play of light on it is considerable while the 
larva is in motion. The spines are black and shining 
and not much branched ; the anterior legs are black 
and shining. The spiracles are black, finely outlined 
with brownish-green, and inconspicuous. The ventral 
prolegs are wholly reddish-green with a shining plate 
above the feet, the anal pair black with reddish-green 
feet. 

At noon on the 20th of July, the above larva ate 
what I thought was its last meal, and in the course of 
an hour became quite restless and began to spin threads, 
when it was put into a cage and soon ascended to 



54 VANESSA ANTIOPA. 

the flat roof, where it began to spin a little and 
remained quiet, but the next morning I saw it had 
moved and that two pellets of "frass" had been 
ejected, whereupon it was restored to its food, on 
which it at once made a hearty meal, and then slept 
on the birch twig, having previously taken the pre- 
caution to spin a few threads for a secure foothold. 
This larva was finally full-fed on the evening of the 
30th July, and spun itself up to the top of its cage, and 
the following day hung suspended by the tail ; on the 
2nd of August it was a pupa. This measured eleven 
lines in length, and in form closely resembled that of 
Vanessa poly Mows in all respects, except that the 
spiky-points were longer and sharper than in V. jpoly- 
chloros ; its colour was a very dark and dingy blackish- 
brown. 

In the younger larvae, which varied in length from 
an inch and an eighth to an inch and a quarter, the 
pubescence was more dense, almost with a shaggy 
appearance, and the naked spots on the back were 
darkish green, as were also the ventral prolegs ; but 
with the increase of growth the black skin showed more 
and more between the hairs, which do not grow, and 
the larva increases in blackness. These larvae lived only 
a few days, probably being diseased from having eaten 
the birch leaves in too dry and withered a condition 
during their journey hither in a wooden box. 

The dorsal row of shorter spines commences on the 
seventh segment ; there is a subdorsal pair on the front 
division of the thirteenth segment, as also on the anal 
flap. (W. B., Note-Book IV, 206.) 



Vanessa Poltchloeos. 

Plate IX, fig. 1. 

On the 15th of June, 1870, two full-fed larvae on 
elm twigs were received from the Rev. J. Hellins ; 
their length when stretched was two inches. 



VANESSA POLYOHLOROS. 55 

Their ground colour is black, but more or less 
sprinkled with ochreous-brown freckles on the back, 
forming a longitudinal band bounded by the subdorsal 
spines ; in the middle of the back is a dorsal line of 
black ; on the sides the sprinkling of the pale atoms 
is more of a greyish tint. Spiracles black, surrounded 
with ochreous-brown ; the spiracular puffed ridge is 
also ochreous-brown ; the prolegs and lower part of 
the sides brown marbled with darker brown, the belly 
of a smoky black ; both are pubescent, especially along 
the sides and legs, head, and second segment. 

The head is black, studded with black blunt points, 
and rather pubescent with greyish-yellow hairs ; all 
the spines branched, brownish-ochreous, with black 
points. The position of the spines is this : none on 
the second segment ; the third and fourth segments 
each bear four, the subdorsal and spiracular ; the 
fifth to twelfth segments inclusive have each seven 
spines, viz. dorsal, subdorsal, spiracular and sub- 
spiracular ; all the spines are shining and branched. 
On the thirteenth segment the upper part above the 
flap has two spines, very nearly in a line with the 
spiracular row, the flap has also two spiracular spines 
pointing backwards ; indeed, all have rather a back- 
ward inclination by degrees from the thoracic segments. 
The anterior legs are shining black. The head is rather 
shining. 

By the 18th of June these larvae had assumed the 
pupa state. (W. B., Note-Book I, 7.) 



Vanessa uetio^. 
Plate IX, ^g 2. 

On the 1st of June, 1874, I found a family of the 
larvae in their last coats amongst stinging-nettles, 
Urtica dioica. The first moult appeared to have taken 
place on a small group of nettles, at their summits ; 



56 VANESSA TTRTJ&E. 

the next moult at a second small group two feet distant 
from the first ; the third moult at another group about 
a foot distant, and the fourth moult at about eighteen 
inches from the large patch of stinging-nettles where 
[ found them ; all these were female plants. 

On the 3rd of June they appeared full-grown, the 
greater part were of the dingy blackish, and dingy 
greenish varieties, and a few of the more lively colour- 
ing of yellow and black. I secured three examples. 
On the 4th I went to look at them, but the nettles were 
deserted, only one individual remaining ; their ravages 
appeared to be from the tops of the nettles downwards 
to within about a foot of the ground, the nettles being 
from three to four feet high. 

The individual I figured was about one inch and 
three-eighths in length ; the segments are plump in 
the middle and with three transverse wrinkles next the 
segmental divisions ; the head flattish in front, divided 
a little on the crown, and rather attenuated where it 
joins the second segment, thickly studded with bristly 
points and hairs ; the second segment has on each 
side of the back a few curved hairs ; on the third and 
fourth segments are subdorsal and lateral spines, on 
all the others, including the twelfth, are dorsal, sub- 
dorsal, lateral, and subspiracular spines ; at the end of 
the twelfth segment is a small, shining dorsal wart, on 
the front part of the thirteenth segment are lateral 
spines, and also on the hinder part ; that is, on each 
of segments 3 and 4 four spines, on each of segments 
5 to 12 inclusive seven spines, and on the thirteenth 
segment four spines ; these spines being bulbous at 
the base, tapering to a fine point, and branched with 
smaller tapering spines. 

In colour the larva, which I figured, had a broad 
stripe of pale bright yellow down the back, the dorsal 
black line running down the middle of it ; the yellow 
is followed by a very broad stripe of velvety black, 
within the upper boundary of which are the subdorsal 
spines. This is followed by a broad yellow stripe within 



VANESSA URTI0J1. 57 

which runs a black edged drab stripe, which widens 
out round each spiracle ; the spiracle is oval, black, 
with a yellow margin situated just under each lateral 
spine ; beneath the yellow the sides and ventral prolegs 
are of a yellowish drab colour ; the anal prolegs tipped 
with the colour of the others. The anterior legs b]ack 
and shining; the belly of the same yellowish-drab 
colour as the side, with a central stripe of faint blackish, 
interrupted soon after the beginning of a segment. On 
the back are scattered minute raised dots, which, by 
the aid of a lens are seen each to bear a fine hair. 
These are all yellow, and below the spiracles they are 
more numerous and coarser and closely resemble the 
glandular hairs of the stinging-nettle. The general 
appearance of the skin is velvety, the head has a 
shining black skin, but is so studded with whitish- 
grey bulbous based bristles, that it looks greyish. 
The colour of the dorsal spines is yellowish -drab, 
tipped and branched with black ; the subdorsal are 
darker olive, tipped and branched with black ; the 
lateral and subspiracular spines are yellowish, beset 
with black points and branches. A little beneath each 
subspiracular spine are two dusky longitudinal short 
streaks. The bulbous rooted hairs occur on the 
ventral surface on those segments without legs. 

The butterflies appeared on June 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 
and 24th, 1874. (W. B., Note-Book II, 66.) 



Geapta — Album. 
Plate IX, fig. 3. 

On the 26th of April, 1870, I received thirteen eggs 
from Mrs. Hutchinson, of Leominster, laid on a leaf of 
stinging-nettle. . 

The egg is somewhat elliptical, standing on end, the 
lower end, the largest, is flattened beneath ; it has ten 
projecting ribs. In colour ix> is rather a bluish-green, 



58 GRAPTA — ALBUM. 

though some were of the colour of an emerald, bril- 
liantly polished, the ribs being paler, of a dull whitish- 
green. Altogether, when seen through a strong lens, 
it has much of the familiar appearance of a miniature 
gooseberry. 

They hatched May 5th ; the young larvae were dark 
slaty-green, with black heads and black hairs. (W. B., 
Note-Book II, 137). 



Argynnis Paphia. 
Plate X, fig. 1. 

On the 4th of August, 1876, I received from the 
Rev. J. Hellins eight eggs which had been laid by a 
captured female. 

These eggs had been laid July 30th and 31st, 1876 ; 
the larvae hatched August 13th and 14th, and were 
placed on potted plants of Viola canina ; they soon 
crept under the leaves, and I did not see them again 
till April 6th, 1877, when I detected one, and subse- 
quently four others, which had survived the perils of 
hibernation. Of these five, one I afterwards lost ; one, 
when full-grown, was preserved by Lord Walsingham ; 
one was sent to Mr. Hellins (who had lost every one 
of the larvae he retained during hibernation), and the 
imago bred June 30th; and two I kept myself, and 
treated with such success, that the pair of butterflies, 
which I bred on June 26th and 27th, were larger and 
finer specimens than any I possessed before. 

The egg in shape is a dumpy cone, laid erect on the 
flattened broader end and rounded off at the top ; the 
shell with about twenty tolerably prominent, longi- 
tudinal ribs, some not reaching to the top, where the 
others converge on a central embossed space, having 
again a spot of finer reticulation in its middle; the 
reticulation between the ribs is not very prominent ; 
the colour, at first pale greenish-yellow and glisten- 



ARGYNNIS PAPHIA. 59 

ing, turns paler in about a week, and in the middle of 
the second week paler again, with a leaden-grey blotch 
near the top showing the place of the larva's head. 

The young larva on hatching breakfasts on the egg- 
shell, and is worth describing minutely, because its 
appearance changes so much after a moult ; it looks 
shortish and rather stout ; the ground colour ochreous - 
yellow ; the head shining blackish-brown, a dingy olive 
collar on the second segment; all the usual warts 
large, shining, of a deeper tint than the ground colour, 
and furnished with stiff bristles ; on the seventh, ninth, 
and eleventh segments are a pair of lateral, deep, dull 
brownish-ochreous spots, which enclose the hinder trape- 
zoidal and the upper lateral warts ; on the thirteenth 
segment the four trapezoidals are soldered into a 
plate. 

On its first appearance in spring the larva is no 
more than one- eighth of an inch long, having appa- 
rently moulted but once before hibernation ; the special 
ornamentation of the seventh, ninth, and eleventh 
segments is gone, though the ground colour is still 
ochreous; it now moults, and though similar to its 
previous ochreous appearance, yet the colours are 
fresher and the ground is seen to be varied by a dorsal 
line of brown, widening somewhat diamond-fashion 
through each segment, and met by oblique lines from 
two darker brown subdorsal spots placed at the begin- 
ning, and a similar pair of spots at the end of each 
segment ; the sides brownish, broken with ochreous, 
with a paler subspiracular region, the belly brownish ; 
the ochreous pale portions of the colouring are glossy, 
the brown parts dull; several series of warts, each 
with a bristly hair, indicate the position of the future 
spines. The head is black. 

After another moult, some time between April 12th 
and 20th, the spines appear, they are alike short and 
stumpy, pinkish-brown in colour, with black tips and 
branches. The head and body are now black, with 
double lines of whitish-violet on the back. At this 



60 ARGYNNIS PAPHIA. 

time the length of the larva is about three- sixteenths 
of an inch. 

At the next moult, after an interval of about ten 
days, the details and colours are much as before, and 
the general appearance is very dark and black. 
Another moult and the larva soon becomes three- 
eighths of an inch long, and shows the two lines on 
the back to be ochreous-yellow, and the sides brownish- 
ochreous. 

From this point I shall speak especially of one 
individual, the most forward, which I kept apart from 
the rest and to which I paid especial attention ; this 
one moulted again on the 29th of April, when it seemed 
much exhausted ; it waited four hours before moving 
and then hid itself under another leaf, remaining there 
without further movement for twenty-nine hours more, 
and only beginning to feed again on the 1st of May. 
It now ate out small segments of circles from the 
edges of the violet leaves, and after eleven days' steady 
feeding and growth, I found its length had increased 
to five-eighths of an inch ; the spines at this stage 
differed in colour, those of the upper row being pinkish- 
ochreous with black tips, the first pair blunt, those of 
the lower rows black with reddish bases. 

The penultimate moult occurred on the 13th of May 
and gave the extra length to the first pair of spines 
behind the head, with their blunt tips black ; all the 
other spines amber-yellow. On the same day, only 
three hours later, another individual was well over the 
corresponding moult, and to this one also I devoted 
especial notice ; of the remaining two larvse still kept 
together, it will be enough to say here that they showed 
the extra length of the front spines on the 15th and 
16th of May. The growth of all continued, and in seven 
days the first, specially noted above, was a little over 
an inch in length, and the second about an inch ; 
neither appeared up to this time to feed very often, 
but each made a good meal twice a day. 

I observed the first larva, in preparation for its last 



ARGYNNIS PAPHIA. 61 

moult, fixed belly upwards to the uuderside of a leaf on 
the 20th of May, and remaining quite still until noon of 
the 25th, when I noticed it moving its anterior legs a 
little free from the leaf, a circumstance which claimed 
my whole attention ; it was but a slight movement and 
was repeated at intervals of about half an hour, until 
between two and three o'clock in the afternoon, when 
it began to stretch its first segments downwards from 
the leaf, making the fore part of the back concave, and 
then presently gently reversing the movement. It con- 
tinued thus at short intervals to increase the stretching 
curve of the body so much, that by ten minutes past 
three its hold on the leaf was retained only by the fourth 
pair of ventral prolegs and the anal pair, when sud- 
denly the skin snapped asunder close to the head, with 
quite a shock to the larva, which instantly returned 
its ventral prolegs to the leaf, while the elastic skin, 
relieved of its tension, was itself from the impetus of 
the rupture gliding backwards. The anterior legs were 
held back until divested, and then returned forwards 
to their natural position one after the other, but kept 
just free from the leaf, each pair being elevated in 
unison for a moment, and let fall, as though to test 
their complete freedom ; otherwise the larva remained 
passive, the skin only continuing to move backwards, 
and whilst passing the ventral prolegs, each foot in 
turn was lifted up out of it, and then replaced on the 
same spot of the leaf, and when the old skin had 
shrivelled up together at the end of the body, the 
larva, with all the ventral prolegs, took two steps 
forwards and drew forth the anal pair free. 

At the first breaking of the skin the head became 
exposed, with the old head-piece adhering to the parts 
around the mouth, but now, at last, the larva gave its 
head a sudden twist or two, and the old piece fell off ; 
from the rupture of the skin to this final riddance the 
operation occupied nearly ten minutes; the spines were 
all uncovered in a remarkably small and rudimentary, 
wet and flaccid condition, the front pair even smaller 



62 ARGYNNIS PAPHiA. 

than the others ; but now this pair began gradually to 
grow, and in fifteen minutes were far longer than ever, 
and in another half hour all the other spines had grown 
considerably, both in length and rigidity; after this 
the larva remained still for two and a half hours longer. 

The second larva gave me an opportunity of verify- 
ing these observations on the 27th of May, commenc- 
ing its last moult at 5 p.m. on that day, and behaving 
in precisely the same fashion ; when I saw the front 
legs held back and again dropped forward with the 
natural motion of relief, after being freed from the 
old skin, I was reminded of the familiar manoeuvre of 
one's being helped off from behind with the sleeves of 
a tight overcoat. 

The second larva had fixed itself on only a part of 
a leaf, too narrow to admit of any stepping forward, 
but it knew how to meet this difficulty, for when the 
sloughing arrived at the first ventral prolegs, the larva 
fidgeted a little with the anterior legs, but finding 
nothing they could touch, and remembering that no 
advance was possible, it kept its place until the final 
moment came, and then disposed of the difficulty by 
arching the hinder part of the back convexly down- 
wards from the leaf, and with a strong effort pulled 
out the anal prolegs by a downward, not a forward 
motion. 

The largest larva previously noted made enormous 
meals for the last ten days, freely exposing itself on 
the violet plants ; but towards evening, on the 7th of 
June, it became restless, and wandered actively over 
the plants, the earth, and the protecting glass cylinder, 
impatient of confinement, and late at night found its 
way to the leno covering at the top. Next morning it 
was still there, but much shortened, and engaged at 
intervals in adding to a layer of silk already partly 
spun ; in the afternoon it turned itself round, so as to 
insert the anal proleg hooks in the small tuft of silk 
prepared in one spot, deliberately testing the strength 
with each foot in turn by a visible pull, the ventral 



ARGYNNIS PAPHIA. 63 

prolegs holding on to the thinner silk layer spread 
before the tuft, but the head and anterior legs quite 
free from it ; thus it remained for nearly five hours, 
and then suspending itself by the anal prolegs only, it 
changed to a chrysalis on the 9th of June. 

The full-grown larva measures from about one and 
a half to one and five-eighths of an inch in length and 
is in proportion rather stout. The broadish head has 
the lobes produced angularly on the crown by project- 
ing tubercles, with stout pointed hairs, the ocelli 
prominent ; the second segment wider than the head, 
and the bulk again increasing to the fifth, decreasing 
again from the tenth to the thirteenth ; the spines are 
in three rows on either side, bulbous based, pointed, 
and branched with finer hair-like spines of varying 
lengths ; in position they are subdorsal, lateral, and 
subspiracular, six on a segment, except that the thir- 
teenth has only four spines, and the three thoracic 
segments have on their sides only two spines, and these 
placed on the segmental divisions laterally, i.e. one 
between the second and third, and one between the 
third and fourth segments. As some compensation, 
however, the first pair of subdorsal spines, as already 
noted, are of extra length, with blunt tips, and directed 
over the head, and there are also on each side of these 
segments from three to five wart-like tubercles, each 
bearing a pointed bristle ; similar bristled warts, in a 
transverse series, are seen on the belly of the fifth, 
sixth, eleventh, and twelfth, and the intervening seg- 
ments have a longitudinal row of four or five just above 
the outside of each ventral proleg. 

The colour of the head and its numerous hairs is 
black and glistening, with a marbling of pale yellow 
on the crown, upper lip ochreous. Down the whole 
length of the back are two stripes of brilliant yellow, 
rather inclining to ochreous and sulphur at either end, 
separated only by a black dorsal line ; these stripes are 
still more conspicuously relieved by a black, velvet - 
like bordering of markings, broad and unbroken, as a 



64 . AKGYNNIS PAPH1A. 

spot in front of each subdorsal spine, though finely 
edged outwardly with brownish-ochreous, and also 
behind the spine with the same colour, and two faint 
curving lines of it breaking there the black ; the ground 
colour of the sides, just as far as the lowest row of 
spines, is velvety-brown, adorned along the middle by 
a series of rather fusiform, black, velvety marks, one 
on each segment, intersected in the middle by the 
lateral spine, and finely edged with brownish-ochreous ; 
some short rudiments of other fine ragged lines of this 
colour occur on parts of the ground, but become very 
faint along the spiracular region, where a few freckles 
appear of lighter ochreous. The oval spiracles are 
black. The spines are of a reddish-ochreous colour, 
with their extreme tips and branches black. The 
belly is of a dull blackish-brown, abruptly contrasted 
with the side, and rather inclining to chocolate-brown 
at the segmental divisions ; the w^arts paler and glisten- 
ing, hairs black. The anterior legs black, shining, and 
hairy, as are the ventral and anal prolegs above, but 
pinkish and smooth below, with a fringe of blackish 
hooks on the feet. 

The chrysalis, about an inch long, when seen side- 
ways is deepest across near the end of the wing-covers, 
and the largest projecting points; seen in front it is 
broadest across the bases of the well-defined wing- 
covers, which project laterally in curved ridges from 
the thorax — itself rather sharply keeled in the centre, 
— from this is a deep depression, and thence again the 
abdomen swells out in a backward tapering curve to 
the point by which it is suspended ; in the subdorsal 
region, on each side of the back, is a row of obtuse, 
tapering, prominent points, smaller in the depression, 
and much smaller still on the thorax ; a larger pair at 
the head are suggestive of ears. The pupa skin is of 
a dull fawn-colour, varied with paler and with fine 
brown reticulation. There is a line of brown along the 
spiracles, and a stripe of a darker brown on each side 
beneath the abdomen ; a fine, rather wavy, line of dark- 



ARGYNNIS PAPHIA. 65 

brown near the margin of the wing- covers, and in the 
depression of the back are large glittering, golden basal 
spots to the points there, and the tips of the other 
abdominal points have a similar golden lustre. (W. 
B. ; E.M.M. XIV, 252.) 



Argynnis Adippe. 
Plate X, fig. 2. 

On the 29th of June, 1867, 1 received a larva, which 
I had no doubt was referable to this species, from the 
Rev. E. Hallett Todd; he had found it a day or two 
previously on Viola canina. 

I figured it a second time on the 7th of July, when 
it had a little increased in size and its colouring was a 
trifle darker. But at last this larva showed symptoms 
of disease, some part of its interior protruding a little 
from the anal flap, and on the 11th of July it died, to 
my great mortification and regret. 

It had just attained the length of an inch and a half. 
(W. B., Note-Book II, 127.) 

On the 20th of August, 1877, the Rev. J. Hellins, 
who was then at Chagford, Devon, sent me a female 
Argynnis Adippe alive. She was placed on a potted 
plant of Viola canina, protected by a glass cylinder, 
and by the 25th had laid about twenty-five eggs on the 
plant, chiefly on the underside of the leaves and on the 
stems, twenty-three eggs on the lower tin hoop of the 
cylinder, including two on the glass, and six eggs on 
the earth under the plant. 

On the 25th I received eight eggs laid by another 
$ Adippe ; these had already changed colour. On the 
same day I received as many as seventy-eight eggs of 
Adippe from Mr. W. H. Ballett Fletcher, of Lynd- 
hurst ; these had been laid on green leno, he having 
imprisoned three ? Adippe in a cage lined with that 
material during his absence in the Forest for a day. 

vol. i. 5 



66 AEGYNNIS ADIPPE. 

These eggs were placed as well as a few others on the 
leaves of Viola canina and odorata, which were put in 
the cage. 

The shape of the egg is conical, the base broad having 
a central depression, the sides are very boldly ribbed 
and reticulated, some ribs being longer than others and 
reaching to the apex where they turn down a little. 
When first laid its colour is a glistening light ochreous- 
green, becoming in three or four days rather pink, after- 
wards deepening gradually to a rosy red, the ribs show- 
ing paler. At this time the top of the egg between the 
ribs soon assumes a deep carmine hue, softening into 
light greenish at the base ; the egg changes again to a 
more dingy pinkish all over, no longer glistening but 
very dull. 

By the end of September the eggs had grown very 
much paler in effect, owing to the ribbed reticulation 
becoming rather whitish, but beneath the ribs there now 
appeared at the top of the egg a dark grey blotch. 

The eggs from Mr. Ballett Fletcher were greyish- 
green all through the winter, and towards the end of 
February, 1878, looked more of a bluish-green than 
before, and on the 1st of March the ribs of some few 
became whitish and a dark leaden internal blotch was 
visible through the shell near the top. 

On March 2nd I saw at midnight that five larvse 
were hatched. March 4th, two more at 5 p.m. March 
7th, one at midnight. March 21st, one at 5 p.m. 

The newly hatched larva does not eat any more of 
the egg-shell than the hole at the top for its escape ; it 
is rather an active little crawler. At first it is of a 
brown colour, with a shining black head, and has a very 
small black-brown plate on the middle of the second 
segment, and is decidedly hairy. All these larvse excep- 
ting one fell a prey to slugs introduced with the plants. 
The solitary larva which survived grew very slowly ; 
in April it was very small and dark coloured as before, 
in May it grew a little and by the end of the month 
was about a quarter of an inch long, with blackish 



ARGYNNIS ADIPPE. 67 

head, and black body, finely marbled with dirty greyish- 
whitish, and a stripe of this paler colour above the legs, 
the spines all black. By the 7th of June it was half 
an inch long, the body still black, finely varied with 
minute faint whitish markings ; and now for the first 
time the spines were pale ochreous-brownish in contrast 
to the body. By the 14th of June it was nearly five- 
eighths of an inch long and stout in proportion, the 
spines all pinkish- ochreous, thickly branched with black ; 
head black, and the general appearance of the body was 
black, though faintly paler pinkish -grey markings 
could be just discerned as follows : the general ground 
black, thickly sprinkled with atoms of violet grey ; at 
the beginning of each segment on the back, in front of 
the pair of subdorsal spines, was a crescent or semi- 
lunar mark of unfreckled black, velvety by contrast 
with the other parts of the skin ; these were divided 
dorsally by two short fine violet-grey lines, which ended 
with them ; three lines of the same colour and freckly 
character ran along the side longitudinally, interrupted 
only by the spines, and a stripe of the same ran along by 
the lowest or subspiracular row of spines ; the belly, 
too, was blackish, freckled with violet-grey; anterior 
legs black, ventral and anal prolegs reddish-ochreous 
below, black above ; the mouth reddish ochreous. 

On the 23rd of June this larva moulted and its spines 
became noticeably long in proportion. I figured it on 
the 26th, when its length was one inch and an eighth. 
On removing it at first it was shy and curled up for 
several minutes, then stretching itself out gradually it 
set off to run at a pace quite equal to the fastest larva 
of Arctia Oaja! 

The number of its spines was just the same as in A. 
Paphia, but the first dorsal pair though directed over 
the head were rather shorter than the others ; beyond 
the thoracic segments each segment had six spines 
except the thirteenth, which had only four ; a lateral 
spine between the second and third, another between 
the third and fourth, were the only additions to the 



68 ARGTNNIS ADIPPE. 

subdorsal spines on those segments, but there were 
several warty tubercles at the sides and beneath bearing 
hairs, as in Paphia; in colour it was deep reddish- 
ochreous, finely freckled with rather paler reddish flesh- 
colour and with black ; the dorsal line with the paler 
freckles was distinct throughout and passed through 
the semilunar black velvety mark at the beginning of 
each segment ; along the sides were longitudinal triple 
sets of ragged black velvety streaks, like slashes in 
a doublet (the second row of spines standing in their 
midst), and a somewhat V-shaped black mark, wanting 
the point, was visible towards the end of a segment ; 
the black marks were all most delicately edged with 
freckles of the paler colour, the bulbous base of each 
spine deep strawberry red; the head red, thickly 
freckled with black ; the extreme tips of the subdorsal 
spines were black, all the others ochreous, the finer 
branches black; belly dark red, finely freckled with 
ochreous ; anterior legs black. When feeding its meals 
were taken in a most rapid or hurried manner. 

On the 29th of June the Rev. J. Hellins sent me one 
of his larvae of Argynnis Adijipe, he having now only 
two left, one large and one small. The one he sent 
me was about one inch and a quarter in length, quite 
of a dingy pinkish-brown, minutely freckled with paler 
atoms. On the 12th July I figured it when it was an inch 
and a half long and stout in proportion, coloured just 
as before, the spines pinkish ochreous, the dorsal line 
a paler tint of pinkish flesh-colour ; the beginning of 
a segment had the usual black velvety semilunar mark, 
finely edged on either side by pale violet ; the segmental 
folds were violet ; near them were a few dark freckles 
on either side of the dorsal line, and this line was a little 
obscured with the brown colouring on the middle of 
each segment. 

On the 12th of July the Rev. J. Hellins had a larva 
of Adippe spin up ; on the 17th of July I received from 
him the pupa, suspended by the tail. It was a little 
more than three quarters of an inch in length and 



AEGYNNIS ADIPPE. 69 

rather stout in proportion. The thorax keeled on the 
rounded swelling back, thence a deep depression, from 
which the abdomen swelled out -in a gentle backward 
curve, which increased just towards the tip of the tail ; 
two rows of rather blunt pointed obtuse projecting 
spines represented the subdorsal spines of the larva. 
The wing-covers were long and well developed, and by 
the side of the thorax their margins stood boldly out- 
wards with a prominent ridge, forming the greatest 
breadth of the outline in front. The head was some- 
what squarish in outline. 

At this time the colour was of a pitchy brownish 
blackness with a row of dorsal diamond shapes of less 
intensity of colour, the margins of the wing-covers 
deep brownish-ochreous, the spiky projections golden 
and brilliantly glistening — all the rest of the surface 
glistening. 

Of the larvge previously mentioned, that which I 
had received from the Hev. J. Hellins spun itself up 
under one of the leaves of its violet plant, and there 
died, only partly changed, an aborted pupa. The 
other which I reared from the egg died whilst still 
in the larva state, on the earth beneath the food- 
plant. 

The only way I can account for these misfortunes 
is in supposing that they were kept too hot in the 
sunny window. (W. B., Note-Book III, 210.) 

On the 7th of August, 1882, I received from Mr. 
W. H. B. Fletcher about twenty-six eggs of Argynnis 
Adijjpe, laid upon leno and standing on their bases by 
which they adhered. The shape of the egg is conical, with 
the base rather rounded, it has apparently about fifteen 
projecting ribs, some of them shorter than the others, 
the longest extend nearly to the apex, but do not quite 
meet there, a small central circle being left plain, and 
the ribs are beaded or reticulated ; a few are pale straw 
colour, but the rest are only this colour at the base for a 
short distance, their upper part being rose-red, others 
are wholly red, all have a narrow whitish faint zone 



70 ARGYNNIS ADIPPE. 

not quite completing the circumference a little above 
the middle ; in the course of a week or two the colour- 
ing changed to a greenish-grey, and by the 13th of 
September the ribs were thus coloured and also the 
reticulation, which made the whole egg appear of the 
same hue ; the centre of the top of the egg was a little 
depressed. At this date I placed them iu a cage out- 
of-doors. 

With regard to the egg of Argynnis Adippe, Mr. 
Fletcher has made the following observation : " I 
think that the larva is fully formed in the egg shortly 
after it is laid, for the egg then takes a purplish tint 
which does not change till the larva is hatched. The 
fact that I had two eggs for at least a fortnight with 
great holes, through which I could with a lens see the 
larva move, which larva hatched when put in a very 
warm place, seems to support this view. 

At noon on the 14th of February, 1883, four larvce 
hatched and were put on Yiola canina ; they were not 
very sluggish, and had a blackish head, and very dingy 
greenish body, with a blackish spot on the middle of 
the second segment, a very faintly darker dorsal line, 
and a row of tubercles of the ground colour bearing 
fine hairs on each side of the back and sides from six 
rows of tubercles ; the colour of the belly was a trifle 
paler than the back. 

On the 22nd of March I received from Mr. Fletcher 
six more larvae of the same brood, two of them had 
recently moulted the first time; these measured 2^ 
mm. in length, and were of a deep bright green colour, 
the head black and with a few fine, short, black hairs ; 
on the second segment across the middle was a narrow 
row of dark brown tubercles, all the other segments 
showed a dark blackish-brown dorsal v-like mark at 
the end of each segment, these marks were shorter on 
the third and fourth segments ; they were followed 
outside by paler greenish, indicating the subdorsal 
line ; the sides were of the ground colour, and above 
the legs was a faintly paler greenish line ; the rows of 



AEGYNNIS ADIPPE. 71 

tubercles were all dark brown and had black short 
pointed hairs. 

On the 20th of April I observed the same larva 
noted above, and suppose it had passed its second 
moult, though I am not sure ; it seemed to be of a 
greenish-ochreous colour, with a black head, and with 
blackish chevrons on the dorsal region and a darkish 
patch on the side of each segment ; a faintly paler 
subdorsal line could be traced and also a spiracular 
stripe ; hairs or spines black, and a narrow line of 
these across the middle of the second segment. 

On the 21st of May my larvae had all disappeared, 
as no larva could be found on either of the plants 
which had thriven well. I must say that I much 
doubt whether Viola canina be the proper food plant 
of Argynnis Adippe. (W. B., Note-Book IV, 157.) 



Aegynms Aglaia. 
Plate X, fig. 3. 

On the 29th of June, 1867, I had the gratification 
of seeing this larva, which was most kindly presented 
to me by the Rev. Hallett Todd. 

It was found with others after a strict search 
amongst Viola canina, and its mode of feeding on the 
leaves of that plant was peculiar ; for, when eating, it 
kept advancing with every mouthful until it had got 
to the end of the leaf, and then quickly walked back- 
wards to the point of commencement, and proceeded as 
before, always making a quick retrograde movement 
before again eating its way forward ; and these opera- 
tions were performed with such rapidity that half a 
large leaf quickly disappeared. When its hunger was 
appeased, it usually retreated below the leaves or rested 
on the stalks of the plant. 

When nearly full fed it measured an inch and five- 
eighths in length, and tapered a little towards the head 



72 ABGYNNIS AGLAIA. 

and more towards the anal extremity. It had six rows 
of black spines, branched, with short black hairs, viz. on 
each side a subdorsal, a lateral, and a subspiracular row, 
except as follows : the second, third, and fourth seg- 
ments had only the subdorsal and subspiracular rows, 
or four spines on each segment, the subdorsal being 
rather shorter than the others; arid on the second 
segment they were simple spines, leaning over the 
head and curved slightly backwards. All the other 
segments had six spines in the order before mentioned, 
slanting a little backwards, and more so on the two 
last. 

The head was black, shining, and hairy. The colour 
of the body a dark shining violet-grey, thickly marbled 
with velvety-black, the grey not very conspicuous, 
except at the segmental divisions and along the 
spiracular region, where it formed an undulating inter- 
rupted line. The slender dorsal line black, expanded 
in width near the middle of its course through each 
segment, and was bordered on each side with a stripe of 
bright ochreous-yellow, which expanded in width just 
in advance of the widest part of the black central 
dorsal line. The spiracles were black, delicately 
margined with grey, and close below each spiracle was 
a blotch of bright orange-red, connected below with a 
thin line of orange- ochreous, that ran beneath the 
lowest row of spines ; the belly and prolegs blackish- 
brown. 

The larva continued to feed until the 9th of July, 
when four or five of the rather large leaves at the top 
of the plant appeared to be slightly spun together, 
forming a kind of square tent-like enclosure, within 
which the larva had retired. 

After the lapse of a week I broke a few of the silk 
threads in turning back part of a leaf so as to obtain 
a view of the occupant, and was much interested in 
seeing a very singular pupa suspended by the tail to 
the underside of a sloping leaf, the surface of which 
had been covered with a circular mass of silk, thickest 



ARGYNNIS AGLATA. 73 

in the centre, to which the anal hooks of the pupa 
were attached in a horizontal position, the back of the 
abdomen being so much curved round towards the 
leaf as to imitate the upper two-thirds of the letter s. 

It had a deep depression on the back below the 
thorax, and a square form towards the head ; the wing- 
cases were thick, with prominent edges below ; the 
segmental divisions of the abdomen well denned, and 
on its upper surface two rows of blunt conical pro- 
jecting points. 

The colour of the wing-cases, head and thorax, was 
pitchy-black, with some reticulations of brownish- 
ochreous, visible chiefly at the margins of the wings. 
The abdomen the same ochreous tint, mottled with 
brown, the prominent cones blackish, with ochreous 
points ; spiracles black. Its whole surface shining, as 
though highly varnished. 

The perfect insect (a ? ) appeared early on the 
morning of the 7th of August. (W. B. 5 E.M.M. IV, 
155.) 



Aegynnis Selene. 
Plate XI, fig. 1. 

After repeated failures I have at length succeeded in 
rearing this species from the egg to the pupa, and am 
able to furnish some account of its transformations. 

On the 8th of June, 1870, whilst on a visit to Mr. 
F. Merrifield, I was taken by him to a locality near 
Brighton, where the butterflies were on the wing, and 
I was fortunate enough to secure a pair in cop. These 
I took home with me and placed them the same evening 
on a plant of Viola canina, and the next day I noticed 
several eggs deposited on the upper and under surfaces 
of the leaves, as well as on the stems of the plants. 

The larvae began to hatch in about eleven or twelve 
days, that is about June 20th, and were all out on the 
22nd, and after breakfasting on their egg-shells, fed 



74 ARGYNNIS SELENE. 

away at once on the leaves of the violet ; for a time 
they kept abreast, all feeding well, and with the view 
of trying to procure by artificial means a rapid devel- 
opment and so to avoid the dangers of hybernation, I 
had a portion of them placed in a hot-house. 

I did not, however, confine my attention to this por- 
tion alone, but attended to all the larvae carefully, and 
by the 18th of July was rewarded by finding one of 
those not in the hot-house plainly giving tokens that 
he was bent on outstripping his fellows. By the 24th 
he had gained a length of half an inch (all the rest, 
whether in the hot-house or not, remaining — as I have 
found so many broods in former years remain — at the 
length of about three-eighths of an inch, and apparently 
meaning to hybernate) ; and by the 30th it had attained 
its full length of nearly an inch. On the 6th of August 
it fixed itself on a bramble- stick, and on the evening of 
the 7th became a pupa. 

The egg is of a dumpy blunt sugar-loaf shape, with 
a thin soft glistening shell, which is ribbed with about 
eighteen ribs, and transversely reticulated, but not very 
boldly ; its colour at first is a subdued pale yellow, next 
becoming more drab ; afterwards the lower part of the 
egg becomes dirty whitish, and the upper part purplish 
black, no doubt from the head of the larva showing 
through. 

The newly hatched larva is a little pale olive crea- 
ture, with shining black head ; the pale brownish 
tubercles distinct, and bearing each a pale, longish, 
jointed bristle. By the time it is about two lines in 
length the skin looks translucent, the colour is more 
greenish, the tubercles are larger — bearing the long 
bristles or hairs as before, and there now appear four 
pairs of opaque brown spots placed on the sides of the 
fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh segments. By the 
time the length of a quarter of an inch is attained there 
is another change, for then the fine bristles give way 
to black hairy spines ; the colour is smoky-olive on 
the back, with a paler stripe of almost a dull yellow 



ARGYNNI8 SELENE. 75 

along the side, and a pale spot below each subdorsal 
spine, followed again below by a stripe of the darker 
colour of the back. 

On attaining a length of three-eighths of an inch, 
its appearance is again changed ; it then has a broad 
dorsal stripe of pinkish-grey, a subdorsal stripe of 
blackish-brown, and below it, on the sixth, eighth, tenth 
and twelfth segments, are blotches of orange-ochreous ; 
below these, on all the segments, there are similar 
blotches, forming a somewhat interrupted broad 
stripe. 

The larvse, which are hybernating at this stage of 
growth, turned gradually to almost a dull pale orange 
colour throughout, the head and spines (all of the same 
length) remaining shining black. 

After the next moult there is again seen the previous 
arrangement of colours, but rather brighter ; the spines 
and head still black as before — the larva being about 
five- eighths of an inch in length. 

After another moult it assumes the final dress ; it is 
then three-quarters of an inch long — increasing after- 
wards to about an inch — tolerably uniform in bulk, but, 
when looked at from above, widest about the fifth and 
sixth segments, and tapering thence very slightly to 
the tail ; the segmental divisions are well defined. 

The head is rather notched on the crown. Of the 
six rows of spines the upper (or subdorsal) rows are 
rather stouter than the others and the front pair of 
this row, which are the only spines on the second seg- 
ment, are now rather more than twice as long as the 
rest, and after tapering for some distance become 
thicker again at their tips, and standing forward a little 
apart from each other over the head remind one much 
of a pair of snail's horns ; on the third and fourth 
segments there are but four rows of spines, and those 
finer than the rest ; as a whole the spines may be des- 
cribed as conical, thick, fleshy, shining, and semi- 
translucent, ochreous in colour, tinged with pink, and 
beset with fine-pointed black bristles ; those spines on 



76 AEGYNNIS SELENE. 

the second, third, and fourth segments being excep- 
tionally tipped with black, while the two lateral pairs 
are whitish at the base. 

The ground colour of the full-grown larva is a velvety 
smoky-pink ; there is a dark brown dorsal line, which 
throughout its course expands and contracts twice on 
each segment ; in front of each subdorsal spine, and 
partially enclosing it, is a velvety black spot, delicately 
edged with whitish, while behind each spine is a blackish 
interrupted streak; immediately beneath the whole 
row runs a much interrupted dark brown line ; broad 
black spots are placed also in front of the spines in the 
lateral row. The spiracles are black, set in ovals of a 
pinkish tint, rather paler than the ground colour ; and 
below them, bearing on it the subspiracular row of 
spines, runs an inflated stripe of pinkish -red paler than 
the ground, showing faintly and interruptedly on 
segments three and four, but distinctly throughout the 
remainder. The belly is of a deep pinkish ground 
colour, freckled with dark brown on the sides ; prolegs 
pale pink, tipped with blackish-brown ; the anterior 
legs black and shining. 

Most of the lines or streaks are more or less broken 
by a sort of warty or granulated texture of the skin in 
places, each little wart being of the ground colour, 
emitting a minute soft hair, so that the body has a 
delicate and scattered pubescence. 

The pupa is suspended head downwards ; it is about 
half an inch in length, thick, and obtuse in front, the 
abdomen thickest in the middle, thinner near the 
thorax ; on each side of this part the edges of the 
wing-cases project, thus forming a cavity ; the tip of 
the abdomen, viewed in profile, is blunt and rather 
abruptly curved back to its point of attachment ; the 
eye and antenna cases are well developed, but all angles 
rounded off ; the subdorsal rows of the larva are still 
represented by two rows of blunt spikelets — not very 
projecting — along the back of the abdomen. 

In colour it is brownish-ochreous on the wing-covers, 



ARGYNNIS SELENE. 77 

brown on the abdomen and thorax, and darker brown 
round the concave part of the abdomen ; on the begin- 
ning of the keel of the thorax is a black V mark pointing 
towards the head, with a silvery metallic spot on either 
side, and one on each side of the head ; other metallic 
spots are at the base of the four pairs of spikelets next 
the thorax, the first pair the largest : towards the tip 
of the abdomen three pairs of the spikelets have a dark 
brown curved streak from each, uniting in front, and 
pointing forwards. The spiracles are plainly visible 
and black ; behind them is a stripe of pale brown. The 
wing-cases have at their terminal borders two large 
blotches of black, another towards the middle, one at 
the base of the wing and one on each of the eyes ; the 
ground colour most delicately reticulated with blackish - 
brown. 

Unlike its congener Euphrosyne, the larva of Selene 
has an aversion to the sun's rays, and does not at any 
stage of its larval existence care to expose itself to 
their direct influence, but reposes either on the under- 
sides of the leaves of the food-plants, or else on the 
stems while shaded more or less by the leaves, and 
feeds while young, and indeed nearly up to its last 
moult, on the youngest and tenderest leaves of the 
violet, but thenceforward has a more accommodating 
appetite, and attacks without much choice any of the 
mature leaves, eating out large portions of them at a 
time, and in a few days making considerable ravages 
on the plant. (W. B. 13, 8, 70; E.M.M. VII, 114) 



Aegynnis Eupheosyne. 
Plate XI, fig. 2. 

For many years the adult larva of Euphrosyne had 
eluded the care and search not of myself only but of 
several of my friends. 

We did not find any difficulty in getting a female to 
lay its eggs, which in due course hatched and produced 



78 ARGTNNIS EUPHR0SYNE. 

the young larvae, but the disappointment lay in the 
hibernation. We never could get a single larva to feed 
up in the spring, nor could we, with all our searching 
in fit localities at that season, ever detect a larva feeding 
at large. However, our attempts, though fruitless in 
one point of view, made us acquainted with the 
earliest stages which I will give before proceeding to 
the full-grown larva. 

The egg is of a blunt conical shape, with its lower 
surface, which adheres to the leaf, flattened, its sides 
are ribbed ; at first it is of a dull greenish -yellow colour, 
becoming afterwards brownish. Towards fche end of 
June the larva is hatched, being then of a pale greenish 
tint ; after its first moult it becomes browner-green, 
and about the middle of July it attaches itself to the 
plant and ceases to feed. 

On one occasion I prevented this early beginning of 
hibernation by keeping a larva in a hot sunny window, 
and at the end of July I had the satisfaction of seeing 
it half an inch long ; it was then black and spiny, 
with a faint indication of a dull whitish stripe along 
the sides above the feet, but unluckily after ifcs hiber- 
nation had commenced it was killed by mould settling 
upon it ; and up to last spring this was all I had to 
record. 

But on the 1st of April, 1868, 1 had the indescribable 
pleasure of receiving a larva of this species, most kindly 
presented to me by Mr. W. H. Harwood, of Colchester, 
and which he had found during a walk through a wood ; 
his attention having been for a moment arrested 
by a leaf of primrose being much eaten, and on turn- 
ing it up he detected the larva adhering to it. 

From its size and appearance being similar to the 
one above mentioned I felt sanguine in having now a 
chance of observing and rearing a larva to the perfect 
state. When received it was barely half an inch long, 
covered with spines and black, except a stripe formed 
of whitish freckles running along above the legs ; but 
on the thoracic segments only were they so thick as 



ARGYNNIS EUPHROSYNE. 79 

to make the stripe there appear much whiter than on the 
others. 

A very faint edging of greyish helped to make the 
black dorsal stripe visible. The spines and legs were 
black, and large in proportion ; the prolegs of a dark 
smoky tint, inclining to reddish. 

It at first refused to eat when placed on growing 
plants of dog-violet and primrose, but within twenty- 
eight hours it moulted, and then, when the sun shone 
on it, its appetite returned. Its pace when walking was 
very rapid ; sometimes it fed for a while on the dog- 
violet leaves and sometimes rested quite still basking in 
the sun's rays ; when these were withdrawn it retired 
to the underside of a leaf and there remained, appa- 
rently without motion, till the hour (viz. 2 p.m.) of the 
next day which brought the sun round to the window 
in which its cage was placed, and then at once it came 
forth and walked actively about, fed and basked as 
before. After a few days it began to appear unwell, 
ceased to feed, remained on the earth, and kept out of 
sight for about four or five days. 

Towards evening of the 12th of April it re-appeared 
and greatly rejoiced me by showing itself on the side of 
its glass cylinder in a new coat of black velvet, orna- 
mented with a subdorsal row of bright greenish-yellow 
spines with black tips and branches, all the other spines 
being wholly black ; the prolegs now appeared dull 
pinkish. 

By the 16th of April its pale stripe above the legs 
had become visible, but greyish in tint, the whitest 
portion being on the third and fourth segments, the 
whole of the back remaining of a deep velvety-black- 
ness. The greyish-white stripe above the legs was 
formed by a series of whitish spots with black centres, 
and as they were more or less aggregated, so the 
appearance was whiter or greyer. The anterior legs 
black ; prolegs with their tips brownish and semi-trans- 
parent ; the ventral surface brownish-black. 

Towards the end of April it attained its full dimen- 



80 AEGYNNTS EUPHEOSYNE. 

sions, about an inch long and rather thick when in 
repose, but when stretched out and walking one inch 
and a quarter in length. As it approached its full 
growth the whitish lateral stripe became more and 
more visible, and appeared divided into two by a 
blackish rather interrupted line running through it 
from the fifth to the anal segment ; faint indications 
appeared of a greyish subdorsal line, especially at the 
segmental divisions when stretched out, and the black 
dorsal stripe was also made visible by its edging of 
greyish ; the subdorsal spines remained greenish- 
yellow with black tips and branches to the last, the 
front pair slanting a little over the head ; the head 
itself black, and beset with short obtuse black spines ; 
the lateral and subspiracular rows of branched spines 
were brownish-black, and all were slanted a little back- 
wards. 

At the end of the month it seemed rather sluggish, 
and on May 3rd it disappeared amongst the leaves of 
the dog-violet which had formed its whole sustenance, 
with, I believe, only one exception, when I saw it eat 
out a small piece from a leaf of primrose. 

On May 5th it had changed to a pupa, suspended by 
the tail to a circular mass of silk spun upon the side of 
the glass cylinder, hanging about three-quarters of an 
inch from the earth. 

The pupa, five-eighths of an inch in length, was 
moderately stout and rather sharply pointed, and 
curved at the tip of the abdomen, and with a depression 
next the thorax; the wing-cases long in proportion 
and dull brown in tint, with two rows of pale greyish 
dots near their margin ; the spiked processes of the 
head and the back of the thorax pale greyish ; the back 
of the abdomen brown, with subdorsal rows of blackish 
spikelets, bordered on each side by a stripe of pinkish - 
grey, and near the underside of the abdomen another 
such stripe. 

The butterfly came forth on the morning of the 23rd 
of May. (W. B., E. M. M. V, 125.) 



MELITiEA ATHALTA. 81 



Me lima At ji alia. 
Plate XII, fig. 1. 

On the 16th of May, 1871, 1 received from my friend 
Mr. W. H. Harwood, of Colchester, six larvae of Melitc&a 
Athalia, which he had found, along with many more, 
feeding on Melampyrum pratense. 

As this was not known as a food-plant of the larva, 
Mr. Harwood' s discovery is of unusual interest, and it 
may be well to record precisely how it took place. On 
a warm day in May, 1871, Mr. Harwood was sitting 
under a tree, discussing his lunch, when in compliance 
with that curious law which, as Mr. Stainton long ago 
made us observe (' Entomologists' Weekly Intelli- 
gencer,' vol. i, p. 113 ; vol. viii, p. 193), so intimately 
connects the entomologist's at fresco meals with 
interesting discoveries in insect economy, his attention 
was arrested by the movements of a dead leaf lying 
amongst others on the ground before him. Presently 
the head of a larva was protruded ; a further examina- 
tion showed that its owner was engaged in eating a 
small plant of Melampyrum pratense, and was but one 
of a large colony similarly engaged. 

In previous years my friend had captured the imago 
of Athalia in this locality, and had been puzzled, 
because its generally reputed food-plants, Plantago 
major and lanceolata could not be found there; but 
now the secret was told, and although I have no doubt 
but that, under varied conditions of locality and 
climate, the larva feeds on various plants, yet I cannot 
help thinking that in many of the English habitats of 
the species M. pratense must be its food. Melampijrum 
sylvaticum has I know been given in the list, but as 
this seems to be a rare plant in Britain, and not to be 
known in many places where the butterfly occurs, I am 
inclined to believe that a small variety of M. pratense 
may have been mistaken for it. 

vol. i. 6 



82 MELIT^lA ATHALIA. 

To the larvae which Mr. Harwood sent me I offered 
the choice of Melampyrum jpratense and Plantago lan- 
ceolata, but found the latter plant quite neglected by 
them, even when they had finished up their supply of 
the former. On the 24th of May they began to sus- 
pend themselves to the undersides of the leaves, and 
to the sides of their glass cage, and on the 27th they 
had all assumed the pupa state. 

The perfect insects, of an unusual depth and rich- 
ness of colour, and of maximum size, emerged from the 
27th to the 30th of June. 

The full-grown larva is about one inch in length and 
moderately stout ; viewed sideways, it is of about uni- 
form bulk throughout, viewed from above, it is seen to 
taper slightly just towards each extremity ; the head 
is indented on the crown, is widest at the sides near 
the mouth, and rather flattened in front; the body is 
thickly covered with obtuse conical spines, to the 
number of 113 as follows : the segments from the fifth 
to the eleventh, both inclusive, bear each eleven spines, 
arranged in a single transverse row on the back and 
sides ; or, if they are regarded longitudinally and col- 
lectively, we may say that on segments five to eleven 
inclusive there are eleven rows of spines, viz. the dorsal 
and on each side the subdorsal, supra- spiracular, sub- 
spiracular, lateral, and sublateral ; the other segments 
have as usual a different arrangement ; the second seg- 
ment bears but two spines on each side, which are in a 
line with the lateral and sublateral rows ; the third seg- 
ment has ten spines, the dorsal one only being absent ; 
the fourth segment has eight spines, the lateral as well 
as the dorsal being absent ; the twelfth segment bears 
ten spines, the single dorsal being here replaced by 
two, i.e. one in front, the other at the hind part of the 
segment, whilst the lateral pair are absent ; the thir- 
teenth segment has but four spines, which stand two 
on each side, in line with the supra- spiracular row of 
the rest ; of all these spines, those in the two lowest 
rows are the most slender and smallest, and those in 
the subdorsal rows are rather the largest. 



MELIT^A ATHALIA. 83 

The ground colour of the back is black, becoming 
gradually blackish- olive on the sides, the belly olive- 
brown, the anal flap and also the segmental divisions 
olive; all the skin is thickly covered with whitish 
spots that are very slightly raised, giving it a tesse- 
lated appearance, except that a dorsal stripe of the 
black ground is left. The spots on the back are some- 
what transversely oblong, but rather irregular in shape, 
and are disposed partly in three transverse rows 
between the spines of one segment and those of the 
next, and partly round the bases of the spines ; on the 
sides the spots are rounder and smaller, and are chiefly 
congregated round the spines and spiracles ; there is a 
lateral series of three large irregular spots on each 
segment beneath the spiracles, which almost forms a 
broadish longitudinal stripe. The head is black, with 
a transverse whitish stripe just above the mouth, and 
a group of whitish spots on the crown of each lobe, 
which, as does the rest of the head, emit fine black 
bristly hairs ; on the front of the second segment is a 
narrow, raised, semicircular plate of greyish flesh- 
colour, also emitting black bristly hairs ; the colour 
of the spines of the dorsal and subdorsal rows is 
orange-ochreous, growing whitish at the tips and of 
the dorsal row also rather pale at the base ; those in 
the supra- spiracular row are of a paler ochreous tint, 
with more of their tips whitish ; the three other rows 
below the spiracles are all whitish ; all the spines are 
thickly set with straight, short, pointed black bristles 
at an acute angle, and for the most part each white 
spot on the body emits a fine, short black hair ; the 
spiracles are black, ringed with whitish ; the anterior 
legs black, the ventral prolegs of a pellucid drab colour 
tipped with darker drab hooks. 

The pupa is half an inch in length, very plump, with 
the usual angles much rounded oh ; the abdominal 
rings bear little rounded eminences — traces of the larval 
spines ; the tip of the abdomen is bent back at nearly 
a right angle, and there is a slight depression between 



84 MELITJ1A ATHALTA. 

the abdomen and thorax, which is broad and rounded. 
The wing- covers are well defined and rather prominent ; 
the warmish white colour and texture of the pupa skin 
may be compared to that of biscuit-china ; each abdo- 
minal ring is adorned with a transverse brownish- 
orange bar, having on its hinder edge squarish black 
spots, or sometimes a black bar with orange spots, and 
followed by a row of tiny black dots. The back of the 
thorax is marked with triangular streaks of black, 
outlined with orange; the antenna-cases and wing- 
nervures are faintly marked with orange- brown, and 
the wing- covers and the eye- and leg-pieces with strong 
black blotches and dashes. (W. B., 3, 72 ; E.M.M. 
VIII, 258.) 



Melit^ia Artemis. 
Plate XII, fig. 2. 

I received eggs of this species from Mr. Joseph 
Merrin, of Gloucester, on the 12th of June, 1871. 
Mr. Merrin wrote that he secured some pairs of these 
butterflies in cop. and put the females on growing 
plants of Scabiosa succisa (Devil's bit scabious) in 
pots. " The eggs are laid in heaps of a hundred or so 
on the face of a leaf." The eggs which I received 
were in two clusters and a few single ones. 

In shape the egg is ovate, i.e. largest below and 
smallest above, truncated at the top, and slightly 
flattened at the bottom, ribbed from the top for about 
half their length, and the rest smooth. They shine 
much as though varnished, and are of a pale brown 
colour. (W. B., Note-Book I, 110.) 

On the 23rd of April, 1883, I received from Mr. 
Stainton four larvae of Melitcea Artemis, which had 
been sent to him for determination from Swindon, in 
Wiltshire. They were of different sizes, ranging from 
five to eleven lines in length. They were velvety- 
black with black spines, short and blunt tipped, with 



MELIT^A ARTEMIS. 85 

short, radiating, black and pointed hairs. The belly 
and ventral prolegs green. There being no white 
band along the spiracular region they appeared wholly 
black above ; nevertheless, with a strong lens I could 
descry minute leaden-coloured warts glistening in the 
spiracular region, forming as it were a band of white 
specks. These also had on the black head a green 
transverse streak above the upper lip. 

These larvae fed very sparingly on leaves of Scabiosa 
succisa and of honeysuckle. By the 1st of May one 
had died whilst comparatively small, but the three 
survivors had consumed many whole leaves of the 
scabious, and were very active in crawling whenever 
the sun shone on them. This they seemed greatly to 
enjoy, and to like each other's company, as they kept 
constantly together night and day. 

The two largest had now their black velvet coats 
relieved by the minute, round, whitish, glistening 
warty spots, which were numerously sprinkled over 
the dorsal surface as far as the subdorsal spines. The 
sides were generally without any until close on the 
spiracular region, where they were still more thickly 
aggregated, and formed a lateral band of shining 
specks, of which as none were confluent the effect was 
greyish. The spiracles were oval and black, margined 
with whitish. There were nine rows of black spines, 
viz. dorsal, subdorsal, supra- spiracular, spiracular, 
and sub- spiracular, the dorsal row standing a little in 
advance of the others . . . (W. B., Note-Book 
IV, 37.) 



Nemeobius Lucina. 

Plate XII, fig. 3. 

On the 3rd of June, 1870, having captured two 
butterflies of this species, I put them on cowslip. 
Four days afterwards I found that they were dead, 
but on removing the cylinder which protected them 



86 NEMEOBIUS LUCINA. 

one or two eggs were to be seen laid on the underside 
of the cowslip leaves. 

The plant was put aside and forgotten for three 
weeks or so when I brought it out to inspect, and 
found that the eggs had hatched. A cylinder was 
then placed over the plant, and the next day three 
larvas were to be seen making holes in the leaves. 
At this time they certainly seemed rather of an onisci- 
form shape, but this form soon began to disappear, 
and as they approached their full growth the ravages 
they made on the leaves of the plant were very great. 

By the 18th of July they were about three-quarters 
of an inch long, rather thick in proportion, the head 
smaller than the second segment, and the second a 
little smaller than the third, the outline of the back a 
little convex in shape, and the last three segments 
tapering a little. 

The colour of the head was pale orange-brown, that 
of the back as far as the spiracles of a deep ochreous- 
brown, the surface being composed of warty swell- 
ings, which on the back especially, though rather less 
so on the sides, were covered with a fine down or 
shaggy pubescence, and in addition each wart emitted 
a fascicle of stout, bristly, rather curved hairs. 

Below the spiracles the colour was of a paler brown, 
sometimes greyish. The warts above the legs were 
furnished with pale, whity-brown, curved hairs, form- 
ing a complete lateral fringe, the prolegs equally pale. 
The dorsal stripe was only visible as a black spot 
towards the anterior part of each segment. The 
spiracles were of the ground colour strongly outlined 
with black. (W. B., Note-Book I, 40.) 

On the 29th of May, 1879, the Rev. J. Campbell 
Parson brought me a pair of this species taken in cop. 
They, were placed on the 31st on some potted plants 
of cowslip. The male lived nine days and the female 
fifteen. 

On the twelfth day five eggs were visible laid on 
the upper surface of a leaf, some near the middle of the 



NEMEOBIQS LUCINA. 87 

midrib ; another was visible on the underside of another 
leaf near the lower edge. On withdrawing the grenadine 
cover after the death of the female and examining the 
undersides of some broken leaves several little groups 
of eggs came into view. Altogether I counted fifty- 
two. 

In a few days two of them appeared infertile as 
they remained colourless like clear glass. The others 
from the first were of a very pale greenish-yellow, 
becoming in a few days less transparent, but the 
shells very glossy as at first. On the 16th of June 
those first laid on the upper surface of a leaf changed 
to a pinkish-grey colour, and were marked with a very 
delicate black diamond-shaped reticulation; a black 
spot showed also on one side of the egg. The shape 
of the egg was globular, the shell smooth-surfaced 
and highly polished. 

In the evening of June 16th two of the eggs showed 
a central circular cap gone from the top of the shell, 
aod a slight movement was perceptible of the appa- 
rently glistening brownish skin of the imprisoned 
larva. The next morning those five eggs were 
hatched, and one of the larvae was eating away round 
the circumference of the shell it had quitted, the 
others having evidently breakfasted in a similar way, 
as the clear glassy shells were so much eaten down. 

The larva at this early time being of light-brown 
colour, with a shiny clear brown head, with distinct 
black ocelli, and with longish black hairs on the back 
and sides of the body, these characters explained the 
reticulated appearances on the egg, and the shining 
head was what had appeared through the top of the 
shell. The head is rather large in proportion to the 
body, but not remarkably so. 

On the 18th June they had each eaten a small 
round cell or hollow in the upper skin of the leaf 
close to the remains of the egg-shells, in the vicinity 
of which they still continued. 

On the 19th they had eaten small deep holes, 



88 NEMEOBITJS LTTCINA. 

piercing in some instances quite through the leaf, 
over the surface of which they were then more dis- 
persed. Two or three other larvae make their appear- 
ance on other leaves, but at this time their powers of 
locomotion were very feeble. 

On the 20th their bodies appeared rather trans- 
parent, but with an internal, dingy, greenish, opaque, 
thick dorsal vessel showing through the skin. By 
the 27th they had grown double the size, with much 
the same colouring ; shining, lightish warm brown 
heads , faintly purplish-brown bodies ; black hairs on 
the back, paler ones below on the sides ; the belly 
lighter than the back; a shining brown narrow plate 
on the second segment ; the body less glistening and 
transparent than before. By the 8th of July the 
most advanced were two-tenths of an inch in length ; 
the head and plate as before, but the body was more 
drab colour, with a darkish grey-brown dorsal line. 
They were now in their third moult, and increasing 
daily in size and in depth of colouring. The leaves of 
the plant were quite riddled with holes. By the 14th 
of July the colour was more of a drab like dingy- 
green, with pale brown head and small narrow plate 
on the second segment and a dark dorsal line. 

At the next moult the larva becomes of a dingy- 
green and rather velvety looking, and measures when 
about to moult again nearly seven-sixteenths of an 
inch. By the 26th of July the ground colour was a 
dirty yellowish olive-green, with a dark purplish 
dorsal line showing faintly on the thoracic segments, 
but on all the others as a purple spot on the middle of 
each of them. The head light warm glossy brown, 
the hairs above black, those above the legs of a light 
drab. At this date one had already moulted again 
and attained a length of half an inch ; the head still 
brown and shining, but the skin of the body no longer 
visible, being so densely clothed with light soft brown 
hair. On each segment on the back was a triangular 
mark of blackish-brown hairs, the base of the triangle 



NEMEOBIUS LUCINA. 89 

being at the end of each segment, and there was an 
undulating subdorsal line of similar blackish-brown 
hairs, and another, scarcely so dark, above the spira- 
cles. The spiracles were of the brown ground colour, 
circular, finely ringed with black. A little below them 
was a fringe of bristly hairs, which were either cream 
coloured or very pale brown. Slight fascicles of 
longer black hairs diverged from each tubercle of the 
body ; the head also bore a few blackish hairs. 
(W. B., Note-Book III, 266.) 



Thecla rubi. 
Plate XIII, fig. 3. 

The larva of this species had long been a desideratum 
to me, even after all the other British species of the 
genus, some of which are very much scarcer in the per- 
fect state, had been duly figured. Perhaps the reason 
was that I and my friends tried to take it from the 
bramble only ; but although diligent search was made 
for it on that plant in localities where the butterflies 
absolutely swarm, no one could find it for me ; nor 
would butterflies shut up in a glass cylinder, with 
bramble buds and flowers, deposit their eggs on them. 
Doubtless the larva has been found on bramble buds, 
as Albin's account of it fully testifies, still I can now 
give two other food-plants for it, which I cannot help 
fancying are more to its taste. 

On the 25th of June, 1868, Mr. W. H. Harwood, of 
Colchester, who had made acquaintance with the larva 
during the previous year, kindly sent me some fine 
full-grown examples, beaten from broom, I lost not 
a moment in depicting them, and no sooner were they 
done, than on the following day I received others from 
Mr. C. Gr. Barrett, then at Haslemere, he having, quite 
by accident, discovered them on Genista tinctoria, and 
most fortunately he was able to send me four in dif- 



90 THBCLA BUBI. 

f erent stages of growth. These from the Genista were 
not so brilliant in markings as those from broom, bnt 
otherwise identical ; and from both sets of larvse the 
perfect insects came forth from the 25th of April to 
the 9th of May, 1869, very lovely specimens. 

The full-grown larva is about five-eighths of an inch 
in length, and gains nearly an eighth of an inch when 
stretched out in walking; thick in proportion and 
somewhat onisciform in shape, flattened beneath ; the 
head very small and retractile ; the second and third 
segments rounded above ; the others to the tenth 
inclusive have a dorsal hollow with an eminence on 
each side of it, which slopes thence to the lateral ridge ; 
the last three segments are rather flattened above. 

The ground colour is a bright yellowish olive-green, 
the hollow of the back is a darker full green, and down 
its centre runs the pale olive-green dorsal line, which 
gradually widens and suddenly contracts on each seg- 
ment throughout its course, and becomes darker on 
the last three segments, and is there bordered by a 
yellowish stripe on each side ; from each eminence on 
the other segments a thick bright yellow streak slants 
backwards and downwards, bounded beneath by an 
equally thick streak of deep full green, most intense 
at its beginning on each segment ; the lateral ridge 
has a stripe of yellow, beginning at the third segment 
and running continuously round the anal extremity ; 
parallel to this and above the spiracles is a faint indi- 
cation of a stripe a little yellower than the ground 
colour. The head is pale brown with darker brown 
round the mouth ; the appearance of the larva is 
velvety, caused by minute raised points bearing fine 
short bristles. 

The larva, when younger, has the yellow markings 
less distinct, and in two of the examples found on the 
Genista they scarcely appeared even to the last. 

The larva enters the earth, but only just beneath 
the surface, to undergo its change. 

The pupa is very short and thick, especially about 



THECLA B-UBI. 91 

the middle of the abdomen, rounded, and blunt at 
the anal tip ; the wing-cases nowhere projecting, but 
smooth and large in proportion, and, like the rest of the 
surface, unpolished. In colour it is of a dark, dull 
purplish-brown, and it is thickly clothed with short 
dark-brown bristles, excepting only the wing-covers, 
which are blackish- brown and have no bristles. Its 
appearance would assimilate very well to pellets of 
earth. (W. B., E.M.M. VI, 38.) 



Cheysophanus Phl^as. 
Plate XIII, fig. 4 

On the 4th of July, 1876, I received from the Rev. 
J. Hellins a larva of G. Phlceas, which he had reared 
to about the length of a quarter of an inch on Bumex 
acetosa. It continued to feed well on sorrel, and by 
the 10th of July had attained the dimensions of five- 
eighths of an inch in length, and was thick in propor- 
tion, somewhat onisciform, but without any dorsal 
ridges or hollows ; the back curved, sloping on the 
sides and at each end where it tapers a little. The 
second segment is rather longer than the others and 
bilobed at its front margin, the sides dilated a little 
below the spiracular region ; the segments very well 
defined by close and moderately deep divisions ; the 
belly flat or rather hollow ; the head very small and 
hidden beneath the projecting lobes of the second 
segment, as are all the legs beneath the body. 

It is not easy to see the head even when the larva 
is crawling or feeding, as the bilobed anterior margin 
of the second segment projects so far over the head ; 
the notch in the margin of the second segment seems 
well adapted to receive and steady the edge of a sorrel 
leaf whilst the larva is feeding. 

In colour the head is pale brown, with a darker 
brown spot at the base of the papillas, and just above 



92 CHRYSOPHANUS PHLJJAS. 

the mouth a thin streak of darker brown runs across ; 
the skin of the body is green and velvety, irrorated 
with minute flesh-coloured dots, each emitting a light 
brown, shortish fine bristle; there is a faint appear- 
ance of a brownish dorsal line, the spiracles are flesh- 
coloured and tolerably distinct ; on the second segment 
is a flesh-coloured dorsal fine line, rather sunk between 
the lobes ; all the legs and prolegs are pinkish flesh 
colour. 

On the 14th of July, after feeding well in the interval, 
it appeared to be full fed, and the next day took up 
its position under the lid of a tin box and then appeared 
somewhat shorter and thicker, more spherical in form, 
and on the 17th it was a pupa. On my lifting the lid, 
I saw the pupa lying at the bottom ; it had been fixed 
by a triple thread round the body behind the thorax, 
which had broken away from the pupa, being touched 
by the side of the box when the lid was removed. 

I figured the pupa on the 24th of July. It was 
seven-sixteenths of an inch long, and a quarter of an 
inch in diameter in the thickest part of the abdomen ; 
it was very thick and dumpy in shape, much like a 
Polyommatus (Lyccena) ; the depression between the 
thorax and the abdomen is but slight ; the wing-cases 
are rather long, but not in the least projecting ; the 
abdomen turned down near the blunt tip ; all the parts 
about the head rounded off. 

Its colour is light brown, very much freckled with 
darker brown, there is a blackish-brown freckled dorsal 
stripe, on which is a black dot on each segment of the 
abdomen ; the thorax is rather broadly margined with 
blackish, with a black dot at each side ; on each side 
of the abdomen are three rows of black dots, of which 
the middle row is the largest ; the oval spiracles are 
pale flesh colour with a row of small black dots 
between them ; the wing rays are pale brownish, with 
blackish freckles between them ; the leg- and antenna- 
cases covered with finer freckles ; the eye-covers black 
and glistening. The wing-cases and leg-cases are 



CHRYSOPHANUS PHL^AS. 93 

smooth, but the thorax and abdomen are covered with 
a short bristly pile of pale flesh-colour, only visible 
with a strong lens. (W. B., Note-Book III, 118.) 

On the 11th of August, 1876, I received from the 
Rev. J. Hellins seventeen eggs of this species laid with 
others most freely on Bumex acetosella by a female in 
captivity. The egg is a good size considering that of 
the butterfly, it is circular in shape, rather flattened, 
though convex, of a light cream colour, very coarsely 
reticulated with whitish raised net- work. These eggs 
became greyish on the 14th, and on the evening of the 
15th three of them hatched, and the others the next 
day. The young larvae were not at all onisciform ; 
they had their small heads well in front of the second 
segment, the body thickest at the third, fourth, and 
fifth segments, from thence slightly tapering to the 
rounded anal end. 

In colour they were rather a dingy pinkish green, 
with a darker dorsal vessel, just visible, and on each 
side of the back one row of fine and longish black 
hairs. The larva is sluggish, though it occasionally 
eats holes through the leaves, it more generally makes 
a little channel on the under surface just the width of 
its body, and about its length, so that the larva lies 
sunk in this channel about on a level with the surface 
of the leaf. It then either quits this to make another 
similar hollow in which to rest, or else it continues to 
lengthen the channel already made always keeping to 
the under surface of the leaf, eating the green cuticle 
there, which is much thicker than that on the upper 
surface of the leaf. 

On the 21st the larvae were very light greenish in 
tint, a little thicker than before ; by the 24th they had 
all moulted, and were again a little thicker and more 
uniform in bulk than previously; the most forward 
individual one-eighth of an inch in length, already 
showed a distinct darker dorsal line, rather brownish 
on its light green skin ; four other longitudinal faintly 
darker lines appeared on either side, and between 



94 OHRYSOPHANTTS PHMAS. 

them small warty tubercles ; the hairs blackish, appa- 
rently more numerous than before ; the belly flattened. 
When this is seen by turning the larva over on its 
back, the head can only be seen as though sunk in a 
hood formed by the overlapping margin of the second 
segment. 

By the 15th of September some had grown to be a 
quarter of an inch long, and two individuals were 
broadly marked with deep purplish rose-pink all round 
the lateral margin, the dorsal line was also of the same 
colour. (W. B., Note-Book III, 138.) 



POLYOMMATUS (L/YCJ3NA) ArGIOLUS. 

Plate XIY, fig. 1. 

In the spring of 1862 I had a few eggs laid by a 
captured female on the foot- stalks of flowers of holly 
(Ilex aquifolium) ; the larvae hatched during the last 
two days of May, fed first on the flower-buds of the 
holly, and afterwards on the young green berries, and 
by June 29th, that is, in about thirty days, had changed 
to pupae. 

I had been anxious to work out the question of a 
second brood of this species, but as no butterfly ever 
appeared from any of these pupae, my attempt at that 
time came to an unsuccessful end. 

On the 20th of June, 1875, 1 received two full-grown 
larvae, feeding on tender young leaves of holly ; they 
had been taken by beating, a day or two previously, by 
Mr. Gr. F. Mathew, R.N. ; one of them had already 
ceased to feed and had changed colour ; the other was 
still feeding well, and I watched it eating a large piece 
out of a freshly gathered tender leaf. The next day 
this also rapidly changed colour, and on June 25th and 
26th, both successively became pupae. One fixed with 
its head downwards on the upperside of a leaf, the 
other with its head upwards on the underside. From 



POLYOMMATTJS (lYOENA) ARGIOLUS. 95 

the second of these two pupae, after eighteen days, 
there came a female butterfly on July 14th ; the first 
pupa remained over till May 25th, 1876, when it pro- 
duced an ichneumon.* 

After this, on the 5th of August, 1875, I received 
from Mr. E. F. Bisshopp, of Ipswich, who had taken 
great pains to secure some female butterflies of the 
second or summer flight, a batch of seven or eight 
eggs, laid just beneath the flower heads of an umbel of 
ivy (Hedera helix) ; unfortunately, only two of them 
proved fertile, and I had the further misfortune to kill 
one of the larvae whilst changing its food, but in the 
very same process was afterwards lucky enough to find 
compensation for its loss. For, early in September I 
found I had unconsciously gathered with a head of ivy 
flower buds, resting on one of the flower stalks, a larva 
in its third moult ; and being thus led to look for 
more, I afterwards found two others in similar 
situations. 

The dates for the changes of the larva, which I suc- 
ceeded in carrying through from the egg 9 and which, 
from the first, ate tender ivy leaves rather than flowers, 
are as follows : hatched August 8th ; moulted by the 
12th, a second time by the 16th, and a third time by 
the 20th ; after that I have recorded a moult between 
September 1st and 5th ; by the -10th it was mature, on 
the 13th it fixed itself for changing, and on the 17th 
became a pupa; thus passing just forty days in the 
larva state ; the butterfly, a male, appeared on the 6th 
April, 1876 (202 days having been passed in the pupa 
state), but perhaps its emergence had been somewhat 
hastened by its being kept sheltered indoors. 

In a general way, therefore, the year's history may 
be divided as follows : the first flight of the butterflies 
is at the end of April and in May ; the larvae from these 
are hatched at the end of May, and feed on holly 

* Unfortunately this ichneumon got damaged before the Rev. T. A. 
Marshall saw it ; hence, though he was able to refer it to the genus 
Limneria, he was not able to identify the species. 



96 POLYOMMATUS (lYC^NA) ARGIOLUS. 

flowers and young leaves, or on young ivy leaves 
through June (Mr. Harwood of Colchester informs me 
that he has also found them on the flowers of Bhamnus 
frangula) ; the second flight of butterflies is in July ;* 
the second brood of larvae feed in August and Sep- 
tember on the flower buds and young leaves of ivy ; 
the winter is passed in the pupa state. 

The egg of Argiolus is very much like that of Alexis, 
except that it is rather larger, being circular, flattened, 
and rather depressed in the centre ; the whole surface 
— except just a central spot — is overlaid with raised 
reticulation, with little knobs at the angles ; the shell 
is pale bluish-green, with the raised reticulation whitish. 
The larva escapes by making a hole near the centre of 
the upper surface. 

The young larva in the spring is something like that 
of a Zygcena in shape, plump and hairy (as was noticed 
both by Mr. Hellins and myself), even while quitting 
the egg-shell, with a greenish- white body and dark head 
and very slow in its movements ; but the summer larva 
I found for the first few hours to be very active, walk- 
ing about with almost a looping progression, and much 
more slender than that of any Polyommatus (Lyccena) at 
present observed. t The head moderately large, rough 
and prominent, of a chocolate-brown colour ; the body 
shining, very pale translucent-greenish, and apparently 
naked. Looking at this unusual form for a newly 
hatched Lyccena larva, one tried to account for it from 
the heat of the weather, and by thinking it was better 
fitted to pierce the hard buds of the ivy just formed, 
than if it were at first more the shape of its congeners. 

* [Or August.— H. T. S.] 

f [Knowing the very great care and attention which were used by 
Mr. Buckler in his studies of growing larvae, I feel a certain amount of 
hesitation in saying that I think he here made a mistake. This 
account of the young summer larva was drawn up from one example, 
and I believe this must have been the larva of some Tortrix introduced 
with the food. Subsequent investigations, as shown in the text, failed 
to discover any difference between the newly-hatched larvae of the two 
broods of Argiolus, although when this was pointed out to Mr. Buckler 
his confidence in the observation he had recorded remained unshaken. 
—J. H., 28, 7, 85.] 



POLYOMMATCJS (lYCJINA) ARGIOLUS. 97 

After the first moult, it became stouter in figure, pale 
oclireous-green in colour, and clothed with unusually 
long, whitish, soft, silky hairs, and was very sluggish, 
no longer differing from larvse *of the spring brood. 

When about a fortnight old, it attains the length of 
three-sixteenths of an inch, and becomes of the usual 
Lyccena shape, with smooth glistening skin and with 
the colour similar to that of the young iyy buds ; in 
about three weeks it is five-sixteenths of an inch long 
and stout in proportion, showing a paler streak on 
the ridges of the back, thin double slanting lines on 
the sides, and a margin of yellowish-white along the 
sub-spiracular region. 

In about five weeks it is full fed, and then reaches 
the length of three-eighths of an inch, and sometimes 
more when stretched out in crawling ; the figure some- 
what onisciform ; the head very small and retractile 
into the second segment beneath ; the second segment, 
which is the longest, is but slightly convex above, the 
others are arched on the back, the third, fourth and 
fifth being the highest, and thence the others slope a 
very little to the tenth. These eight segments (from the 
third to the tenth inclusive) are crested with two ridges 
of humps, between which lies the sunk dorsal space, 
broad and hollow on the third and fourth, and flattened 
and narrowing gradually to the tenth ; on these seg- 
ments the divisions are deeply cleft through the ridges, 
thus producing the appearance of humps ; segments 
eleven, twelve, and thirteen are simply convex, and 
slope towards the anal end ; the sides although sloping 
outwards, become almost concave near the projecting 
rounded sub-spiracular ridge, which continues round 
the anal segment, overlapping all the short prolegs. 
The belly is flattened. 

In colour there seem to be several varieties ; one, a 
bright yellowish- green, with paler lines as above, the 
head purplish-brown, but looking almost black by con- 
trast, and with an ochreous streak above the mouth 
and at the base of the papillse, the spiracles round and 

vol. i. 7 



98 POLYOMMATUS (LYC^NA) ARGIOLUS. 

flesh-coloured, the whole skin of the body velvety, with 
its surface thickly covered with yellowish warty 
granules, each bearing a minute bristly white hair. 

Another variety, of the same yellowish-green ground 
colour, has dashes of deep rose-pink on each humped 
ridge of the back and in the dorsal channel continued 
to the anal end, and an additional dash on each side 
of the fifth segment ; along the sides, fine double lines 
of pale greenish-yellow, edged with darker, slanting 
backwards ; the sub-spiracular ridge itself of a whitish- 
flesh colour, but deepening above and below with a 
narrow border of full rose-pink, which again melts 
into the green ground. 

Another variation, which from the too rapid develop- 
ment of the example exhibiting it, was but imperfectly 
noted, is of a very pretty mixture of green and black ; 
the ground colour green as before, a transverse bar of 
black across the middle of the second and beginning 
of the third segments, a dorsal series of thick dashes 
from the third to the tenth ; the eleventh with a dash 
on either side enclosing the green ground as an inter- 
ruption, with the dorsal marking again occurring on 
the twelfth and thirteenth segments ; on each ridge of 
the back is a row of roundish spots, and a little lower 
on the side, a row of squarish spots and lower again, 
in the spiracular region is a row of roundish spots 
placed at the segmental divisions ; on the fifth segment, 
the upper markings are thicker and run together. 

About four or five days before changing the larva 
ceases to feed, becomes of a dingy olivaceous- pink or 
mouse colour, and spins a fine layer of silk as a foot- 
hold and a stout thread as a cincture, crossing the 
front of the third segment, and strengthened near the 
base on either side by two other short threads joining 
it, thus forming triple moorings. 

In each instance I found the operation of changing 
to a pupa had brought the cincture away from its 
resting place on the larva to below the thorax of the 
pupa, so that this thread, at first slanting forwards 



POLYOMMATUS (lYCJ]Na) ARGIOLUS. 99 

from the base over the larva, slanted now a little back- 
wards over the pupa. 

The pupa is about five-sixteenths of an inch in 
length, and three- sixteenths in width, of a dumpy figure, 
thickest at the middle of the abdomen, with the head and 
thorax rounded, and the latter very slightly keeled ; a 
depression occurs between the thorax and abdomen, 
where the cincture passes which holds it secure ; thence 
the abdomen swells out full and arched towards the 
bluntly rounded anal end ; the wing-covers are long in 
proportion, but not at all projecting. 

In colour it is pale brownish-ochreous, with a black- 
ish-brown thin dorsal line marking the thoracic keel, 
and on the abdomen a series of rather blotchy arrow- 
head dorsal dashes, and a subdorsal series of larger 
dark brown blotches, that nearest the thorax being the 
more conspicuous from the next segment being without 
one. The thorax is marked with oblique rows of brown 
freckles directed from the sides of the head towards 
the end of the keel at the depression ; the eye-covers 
are blackish, the wing-covers pale greyish with rays 
of brown freckles, and outlined with a thin brown 
edging, their surface smooth, rather more glistening 
than the other parts, which are thickly studded with 
fine, short, brownish bristles. 

It may be worth mentioning that during the month 
of May, 1876, eggs were laid by a female Argiolus, in 
captivity, on holly and also on young shoots of ivy, and 
that both Mr. Hellins and I find that the larvae eating 
ivy are more advanced than those feeding on holly. 
(W. B., 12, 6, 76 ; E.M.M. XIII, 29.) 

Since the above was written some further variations 
of the larva may be mentioned ; they occurred amongst 
a recent brood, reared from eggs, which were brought 
successfully through to the pupa state, both by Mr. 
Hellins and myself. 

Several individuals were olive-green, strongly marked 
with crimson on the dorsal region and along the sides, 
and deeply suffused with this colour on the thoracic 



100 POLYOMMATUS (lYC^Na) AKG10LUS. 

segments, while in the midst of this suffusion there 
appeared a pale yellowish- olive semi-lunar patch, situ- 
ated transversely on the back at the hinder part of the 
second segment. 

Another variety was coloured with deep rose-pink 
on the three thoracic and the last three segments, while 
the middle segments of the body were light green. 

The plain green varieties included individuals of 
greenish-yellow and others of olive-green. 

Some further enlightenment as regards the food of 
this species has been given me by Mr. G. F. Mathew, 
R.N., who kindly informed me that on the 22nd of last 
June some flowers of Uscallonia were brought to him 
to look at, when on one of them was detected a larva 
of Argiolus, about a quarter grown. 

No doubt other food will also be found to have nou- 
rished this species, and thus a good deal of the old puzzle 
as to the appearance of the butterfly in localities where 
no holly grew is done away with. (W. B., 7, 76 ; 
E.M.M. XIII, 62.) 

It may be interesting to mention that during last 
month (August, 1876) Mr. Hellins obtained a number 
of eggs of Argiolus, and sent a portion of them to me, 
and that all the larvae on hatching were found to be 
exactly like those of the spring brood, in being fur- 
nished with hairs and in moving slowly. (W. B., 22, 
9, 76; E.M.M. XIII 138.) 



POLYOMMATUS (IjYC^NA) ALSUS. 

Plate XIY, fig. 2. 

The observations made by Mr. J. Gredge (' Entomo- 
logist's Monthly Magazine,' vol. iii, p. 205), that the 
female of this butterfly deposits her eggs on the heads 
of Anthyllis vulneraria had for some time been tempting 
Mr. Buckler and myself to try and rear it from the 
egg 9 and we have now succeeded in rearing the larvae 
to their full size. 



POLYOMMATUS (LYdffiNA) ALSUS. 101 

I received several specimens of the butterfly, which 
had been captured by Mr. Buckler in Hampshire about 
June 15th, 1870. I placed them on a plant of Anthyllis 
vulrieraria in a large cylinder, and although they died 
off rapidly, one female at least survived to lay about a 
dozen eggs between the 16th and 18th of June. The 
larvse began to hatch on the 21st, and at once took to 
the flowers of Anthyllis, either eating a hole through 
the downy calyx, and then through the corolla to the 
immature seed-vessel, or else beginning by eating the 
lip of the corolla, and then going down to the base of 
the style. 

From first to last the seed certainly was the part 
preferred, and whilst the larvse were small they fed on it 
hidden within the corolla; when they had attained some 
size they pierced the side of the calyx and corolla, and 
thrust in the forepart of their bodies to get at the 
seed-pod with its single seed, leaving their hinder parts 
outside, but still well hidden among the dense bunch 
of flowers which formed each head. 

By July 1st they were barely half- grown, but in the 
next fortnight they developed rapidly, some of them 
by the 13th having attained the length of a quarter of 
an inch, and soon after this the most advanced were 
full-grown ; others, captured in the locality from which 
the imagos came, were not so far advanced, but most 
of these also had ceased feeding by the end of July ; 
they then placed themselves about on the gauze covers 
of their cages, or on the underside of anything in the 
cages that would hide them, and we expected to see 
them change to pupge. However, up to the date of 
writing this (November 9th, 1870) no such change had 
taken place, but those larvae which have not died are 
waiting on quietly, and I suppose will not now turn to 
pupse till spring. 

The egg seemed generally to be deposited low down 
on the calyx of the Anthyllis flowers, and though thus 
hidden from casual observation, it may be easily de- 
tected on a careful search ; it is, as might be expected, 



102 POLYOMMATUS (LYCJ]NA) ALSUS. 

very small, shaped like the eggs of its congeners, that 
is, round, but more flattened than globular, with a 
central depression on the upper surface ; this depres- 
sion is the only place in which the pale green ground 
colour of the egg can be well seen,, because the rest of 
it is closely covered by a raised white network of 
rhomboidal meshes, which, when viewed in profile are 
seen to stand out boldly from the shell. 

The larva escapes by an irregular hole in the middle 
of the upper surface of the egg, and is a mite of a 
fellow to look at, dirty whitish-green in colour, with a 
little black head, a dark place on the second segment, 
and the tubercles bearing longish hairs ; after a day or 
two the colour becomes somewhat reddish, and at the 
end of a week pale brown, with browner dorsal and 
subdorsal lines. After this there begins to be a little 
variation in colour in different individuals, some being 
more of a pinkish-brown, others more of a chocolate 
colour, the distinct dorsal stripe being of a deeper tint 
than the ground colour, and commencing as a broad 
triangular mark on the third segment and becoming 
gradually narrower up to the eleventh, where it widens 
out into a lozenge shape, contracting again to a narrow 
stripe on the twelfth and thirteenth ; the tubercles show 
paler than the rest of the ground, because the brown 
hairs on them being divergent allow more of the paler 
skin to be seen. 

Just below the second row of tubercles comes the 
subdorsal line, which in fact is composed of a series of 
dark brown dashes, one on each segment sloping back- 
wards and downwards so as to let the tubercle stand 
out in high relief ; along the edge of the lateral ridge 
runs a whitish stripe, which is continued round the 
anal extremity ; the belly and legs of the same colour 
as the back. 

The whole skin is studded with short bristles of a 
dark brown colour ; the head is black and polished, 
but with a streak above the mouth, and also the base of 
the papillae, yellow. 



POLYOMMATUS (lYO^INA) ALSUS. 103 

After this there is no change of appearance, save 
that of growing paler and more unicolorous (perhaps, 
as the bulk increases, more of the paler skin shows 
between the dark bristles), until some specimens are of 
an ordinary flesh-tint, and others of a brownish flesh- 
colour, and at this point the larvae assimilate well with 
the changing colour of the corolla of their food-plant. 
After they cease feeding they turn off to a faint green- 
ish-yellow. 

When full-grown the larva is about one-third of an 
inch long, and may be roughly compared to a mode- 
rately sized grain of wheat cut in half, the back being 
arched in a curve and the belly flat with the legs placed 
well under it. Or it may be compared to a very tiny 
tortoise, the head being very small and retractile, and 
a lateral ridge running all round, and giving the appear- 
ance of an upper shell. The second segment is the 
longest and has a sort of triangular plate on its middle, 
and the last three segments are slightly depressed. 
The inner rows of dorsal tubercles are rather projecting, 
and thus form between them a sort of dorsal hollow ; 
the second row I have already mentioned as affecting 
the subdorsal line. (J. H., 9, 11, 70; E.M.M. VII, 
186.) 

On the 5th of June, 1873, I received from the Rev. 
J. Hellins a pupa of this species. The larva with 
several others of its kind had been full fed in July, 
1872, and soon afterwards Mr. Hellins had reported 
they were beginning to hibernate ; the change to the 
pupa state not taking place until June 3rd, 1873 ! 

This pupa, which I figured, was three and a half lines 
in length and one and a half lines in diameter, mode- 
rately plump in appearance, the head and thorax well 
defined, the tip of the abdomen blunt and rounded. 
When viewed in front its general form is that of a 
narrow ellipse, but when seen sideways the prominent 
swelling of the thorax and the tip of the abdomen bent 
under, with the long wing-cases give the usual appear- 
ance of the pupae of this genus. 



104 POLYOMMATUS (lYC^NA) ALSUS. 

It was neither suspended by the tail nor had it any- 
silken cincture, and it might very well be passed over 
as a stony particle on the chalky soil of its habitat on 
Portsdown Hill. 

The colour of the pupa is dirty whitish-grey 
approaching to drab, palest on the back of the abdo- 
men, greyish on the head and thorax, both of which 
are marked with a black dorsal stripe, which is a little 
interrupted ; on either side is a subdorsal row of short 
slanting black dashes. The pale ground colour is 
sprinkled with some very minute black specks. The 
wing-nervures are well denned by the spaces between 
them being filled up with dark grey. The head, thorax, 
and abdomen are hairy with bristly whitish hairs, of 
which there are none on the wing-, leg-, and antenna- 
cases. 

The butterfly made its appearance June 24th, 1873, 
at 10 o'clock in the morning. (W. B., Note-Book 
II, 12.) 

The whole year's history of this species comes to this : 

Egg laid about the middle of June. 

Larva hatched within a week ; full fed and fixed 
motionless about the end of July. So continuing for 
ten months till the beginning of next June. 

Pupa state then lasting for some two or three weeks, 
and the 

Imago living but a short time to perpetuate the 
species. 

The long continuance in the larva state after being 
full fed seems very remarkable. (J. H., 14, 6, 73 ; 
E.M.M. X, 43.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LYC7EXA) ARION. 10- 



POLYOMMATQS (IjYC^XA) ArION . 

(One of the few larvae of which there is no figure in 

this volume.) 

On the 15th of June, 1869, I had the great pleasure 
to receive from Mr. Herbert Marsden, a 3 and ? 
Polyommatus (Lyccena) Avion alive ; they had been cap- 
tured by him together ; he also sent me at the same time 
two small plants of Thymus serpyllum in blossom. 

These plants were potted separately and the insects 
put on one of them under a glass cylinder. During a 
gleam of sunshine the ? certainly appeared to me to 
deposit an egg among the flowers, but the weather 
being cold and cloudy I deferred further observation 
until the following day, when I again saw her deposit 
an egg as before. 

After dark I removed the butterflies to the second 
plant in order that I might closely inspect the first on 
which they had been for two days ; nor was I dis- 
appointed, for on the morning of the 17th, on looking 
over the blossoms with a strong lens, I detected six 
eggs, all laid on the calyces between the heads of the 
flowers, but not one on either stalk, stem or leaf. 

The egg of Arion is round, smooth, and depressed 
on the top, pale greenish-blue in colour. Although 
the eggs hatched both with Mr. Merrin and myself, 
yet we have failed to detect the young larvae on the 
plants at present, but we believe they must be very 
small, hiding away somewhere, and that they will 
most likely hibernate. (W. B., 13, 8, 69; E.M.M. 
VI, 91.) 

On the 15th of June, 1870, 1 received a pair of these 
butterflies captured in cop. by Mr. Merrin, junr., and 
kindly sent me by his father. They were at once 
placed on Thymus serpyllum, and on the 17th were 
removed to another plant of thyme ; the male was 
then dead. I now counted the eggs and found six- 



106 P0LY0MMATUS (LYC^NA) ABION. 

teen, a few being laid on the stems and others on the 
corolla of the flowers. No doubt there were more 
eggs which I did not at the time detect. 

These eggs hatched on Thursday night, the 23rd of 
June, i.e. on the seventh or eighth day after they were 
laid, but I could not detect the young larvse. After a 
careful inspection of the plants I telegraphed to Mr. 
Hellins, to whom I had previously sent eleven eggs, 
and his reply informed me that his were hatched and 
that he could see one larva feeding. 

During the following week he reported them to be 
looking like very small pinkish-brown maggots. . . . 

On the 17th of June, 1870, I received from Mr. 
Herbert Marsden a pair of Lyccena Avion, said to have 
been taken in cop. They were placed directly on Thymus 
serpyllum, and the female laid nearly a dozen eggs, but 
they proved to be infertile and soon shrivelled up. 

Another female kindly sent me by Mr. Marsden on 
the 20th June, 1870, yielded no egg and died the 
following day. (W. B., Note-Book II, 187.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LYCJ1NA) ADONIS. 

Plate XV, fig. 1. 

On the 30th of August, 1873, Mr. A. H. Jones most 
kindly sent me two living females of this species 
which he had just captured at Folkestone. These I 
placed at once under gauze on a plant of Hippocrepis 
comosa, and during the three or four days they 
remained alive they laid about twenty eggs. The 
larvae I believe hatched towards the end of September, 
but as I kept them on a growing plant out of doors, I 
could not see them hatching. In October I found the 
leaflets of the vetch marked with little whitish dots ; 
these were caused by the larvse tunnelling into the 
underside, and eating out the inner surface for a small 
space, leaving the upper skin untouched, which then 
turned white. 



POLYOMMATUS (LYCENA) ADONIS. 107 

I kept their cage in a garden-frame without bottom 
heat, but in a warm situation, and thus sheltered them 
through the winter, and on sunny days the larva3 
could be seen enjoying the heat, stretched out — if that 
term may be applied to such diminutive dumpy crea- 
tures — along the midrib on the upper side of a leaflet. 
Up to December they remained less than one-sixteenth 
of an inch in length, but in January, 1874, some were 
grown to nearly one-twelfth of an inch, and were not 
only marking the leaflets with larger blotches, but were 
also beginning to nibble their edges. 

About the middle of March I noticed that they had 
increased somewhat in length, and considerably in 
stoutness, and that they were now eating the leaflets 
in the usual way ; and by April 1st they were quite 
one-eighth of an inch long, and could eat a whole 
leaflet at a meal. Through this month they grew 
rapidly, the warm weather suiting them well, and they 
ate voraciously, till, by the 30th, several of the most 
advanced in growth had hidden themselves under the 
loose soil for pupation. After waiting eight or ten 
days they changed, and finally the butterflies came out 
between June 2nd and 15th. 

Mr. H. Terry, of St. Marychurch, Torquay, 
informs me that he finds the first flight of Adonis on 
the wing by May 20th, and the second about the 
middle of August; the two broods, therefore, taking 
respectively nine and three months out of the twelve 
to complete all their transformations. 

The egg of Adonis resembles those of its congeners, 
being small, round, and flattened in figure, the shell 
covered with raised reticulation, having prominent 
knobs at the angles ; the central portion of the upper 
surface looks sunk, being covered with finer reticula- 
tion with no knobs. The colour is a light dull grey, 
the reticulation and knobs white. 

The larva escapes through an irregular and rather 
large hole in the upper surface of the egg, and the 
empty eggshell looks whitish ; the young larva is pale 



108 POLYOMMATtJS (lYOJENA) ADONIS. 

whitish-green, soon becoming a full but dull green ; 
all the warts furnished with hairs which produce a 
downy appearance. During the winter months the 
green is replaced by reddish-brown, and again in the 
early spring the larva becomes pale purplish-brown, 
with the dorsal humps and the subspiracular ridge 
showing pale ochreous-brown. After a moult, about 
the end of March, the dull greenish hue comes back, 
the paler marks becoming yellowish, and the hairs 
black. 

The full-grown larva is about five-eighths of an 
inch long, and a quarter of an inch wide, onisciform, 
with the head small and retractile beneath the second 
segment ; the segments deeply divided. There is a 
double dorsal row of eight humps or segments three to 
ten inclusive, enclosing a slightly hollow space, which is 
broadest on three, and thence tapers gradually to ten ; 
the side spreads out to a rounded ridge running round 
the body, and hiding the legs from view when the larva 
is at rest. 

In colour, the head is very dark brown ; the body 
is deep full green, covered with tiny black specks, bear- 
ing little blach bristles, which are longest on the dorsal 
humps and sub-spiracular ridge ; on the top of each 
of the eight pairs of dorsal humps is a deep bright 
yellow longitudinal dash, somewhat wider behind than 
in front ; these dashes form in effect two yellow stripes 
interrupted by the deeply sunk segmental divisions ; 
along the rounded edge of the sub-spiracular ridge is a 
stripe of bright and very deep yellow going all round, 
save a slight interruption on the sides of the second 
segment ; on the second are two yellow dots just 
above the head, and above them again two small 
black spots ; on the third there is a very faint yellowish 
dot half way between the dorsal and sub-spiracular 
stripes ; just above the feet is a row of yellow longi- 
tudinal dashes, brightest on the feet-bearing segments, 
and in one example these dashes were curved upwards, 
and united at the end of each segment to the yellow 



POLYOMMATUS (lYCTENa) ADONIS. 109 

riclge above. In some specimens the ventral prolegs 
are also marked with yellow; the spiracles are con- 
spicuous, being round and black ; the pulsating dorsal 
vessel is rather deeper green- than the ground colour. 

Some of my larvae buried themselves about half an 
inch deep in the loose soil, and formed a weak sort of 
cocoon ; others, not having been supplied with soil 
that could be easily penetrated, retired under the 
stems of their food-plants, and in angles formed by 
the branching stems spun a few weak threads to keep 
themselves in place. 

The pupa is barely half an inch long, dumpy in 
figure; the profile of the back swells out at the 
thorax, drops in again at the waist, and the abdomen 
slopes off in a curve to the rounded anal end ; the 
ventral profile is much straighter, though still with a 
slight curve ; the wing-cases reach more than two- 
thirds of the whole length, and the widest part is just 
where they end. The thorax and wing-cases are 
slightly glossy, the abdomen granulated ; there are 
some very small hairs scattered all over ; the colour 
is at first greenish on the wing-cases, greenish-brown 
on the rest of the body ; afterwards ochreous all over, 
and. finally turning very dark the day before the imago 
emerges. 

On comparing the larvae of Adonis, which I had sent 
him, with figures of Gory don made some years ago, 
Mr. Buckler could detect no point of difference except 
a somewhat different tint in the green ground colour ; 
this made us very anxious to see the larva of Gory don 
again, and our wish was very soon gratified in an 
unexpected manner. 

My friend had sent me a great many plants of Hvp- 
jpocrepis comosa for my larvae, and upon one of these 
that had not been wanted for their use, I found on 
June 8th, a half-grown Lyccena larva, which had evi- 
dently travelled to me out of Hampshire with its food. 

I had been told that Gory don occurred at the place 
whence the plants were procured, but not Adonis, yet 



110 POLYOMMATUS (lTOJINA) ADONIS. 

tliis larva was so like those I had lately reared that 
I felt quite puzzled. It luckily happened that Mr. 
Buckler and I had just been comparing the notes we 
had made of Adonis, and so, seeing in this larva all 
that I had seen in Adonis, except that its bristles were 
brown instead of black, I sent it on to him at once, 
drawing his attention to a little point which I had 
wished him to notice in Adonis. Thus with every 
incentive to exactness, he examined and figured it 
most carefully, finding nothing to notice but the tint 
of the ground colour and the hue of its hairs, and then 
kept it apart, waiting to see what the imago would 
prove to be, till on the 31st of July there appeared a 
fine Gory don. 

As far, therefore, as our means of comparison have 
gone — our materials to work upon being some dozen 
and a half larvse of Adonis on the one hand, and this 
one larva of Cory don, and figures of others taken in 
1862 on the other — we can say that the two species 
resemble each other in the larval state in every par- 
ticular of form and ornamentation except these two 
points : 

Adonis has its ground colour deeper green, with the 
hairs or bristles black, while Cory don has the ground 
colour of a lighter, brighter green (a green with more 
yellow in its composition), and the hairs light brown. 

I have been thus minutely circumstantial in relating 
what was done by us because the result we have 
arrived at is not altogether in agreement with what 
we have been able to find already published. Thus, 
in ' Stainton's Manual' there are descriptions from 
Freyer, which, according to our observations, rightly 
distinguished between the green of Cory don and the 
deep green of Adonis, but err in making the number of 
yellow dorsal streaks different, for Adonis certainly 
has but eight in a row, and not twelve. 

The only other author accessible to us, Boisduval, 
speaks of " le grand rapport qu'il y a entre cette 
chenille (Cory don) et celle d! Adonis" and gives every 



POLYOMilATUS (LYCTENa) ADONIS. Ill 

point of figure and marking as identical, but goes on 
to say that Adonis " est d'un vert tres pale un peu 
jaimatre," and calls its " tubercles" not black but 
" bruns ; " while Gorydon " se distinguera toujours 
assez facilement au premier coup d'ceil par sa couleur 
d'un vert fonce, et par la petitesse de ses stigmates ; " 
yet this is directly contrary to what we saw in our 
examples, viz. the deep green in Adonis, and the yel- 
lowish-green in Gorydon, and the spiracles of the same 
size and form in both. (J. H., 11, 8, 74; E.M.M. 
XI, 113.) 



PoLYOMMATUS (LyC^JNA) ALEXIS. 

Plate XV, fig. 2. 

On the 7th of September, 1880, near the shore, I 
dug up a small plant of Lotus cornicul at/as, and potted 
it the same evening. The next day I observed a 
couple of empty egg-shells of a Lyccena on the plant, 
one appearing quite fresh as though the young larva 
had only just left it. The hole at the top by which 
the larva had made its exit seemed wet and darkish 
green. The exterior of the shell was very rough with 
projections, and precisely similar to the egg of JEgon, 
and of the same round-flattened shape, its colour of a 
very faint greenish-ivhite. 

Two days later, on the 9th, I detected the little 
larva on an adjoining leaf on the upper surface, a few 
grains of black " frass " having guided my eye to 
detect its presence. The larva matched well with the 
dull bluish-green leaf, it was of a sausage-like form, 
and a strong lens enabled me to discern two rows of 
minute black dots down the back. Its mode of 
feeding on the cuticle of the leaf caused little pale 
transparent blotches to appear, and I could see from 
these indications that it had been on other leaflets 
adjoining. 



112 POLYOMMATUS (LYCJENA) ALEXIS. 

Towards the evening of the 11th I lost sight of it, 
and did not again see it till the afternoon of the 13th. 
It was then close by the side of the egg-shell, having 
moulted whilst out of sight. It was much grown, 
and appeared of rather a pinkish colour, and was 
hairy. I soon afterwards planted in the same pot a 
root of Ornithopus perpusillus. 

On the 18th of March, 1881, I saw that the larva 
had been making transparent blotches on the Lotus, 
and also on the leaves of the Ornithopus. Under the 
leaves of the latter plant I soon detected the little 
fellow ; it had grown considerably, and was nearly a 
quarter of an inch long. It was of a green colour 
beneath, but much tinged with purplish pink on the 
sides, and especially on the back. The paler sub- 
dorsal and spiracular lines were plainly visible, proving 
it to be the larva of Alexis. 

A week later I could not find it, the Lotus cornicu- 
latus had died, and the larva must have made its 
escape. (W. B., Note-Book IV, 47.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LyCOTa) iEGON. 

Plate XV, fig. 3. 

On the 31st July, 1867, Mr. C. G. Barrett, then at 
Haslemere, most kindly sent to Mr. Hellins and 
myself some eggs of Mgon, which, by an ingenious 
contrivance he had induced a ? to deposit on twigs of 
heather. 

Being in doubt as to the proper time for their 
hatching I kept those I had in an ordinary room for 
daily inspection until the approach of winter. 

On the 23rd of February, 1868, Mr. S. Hudson 
obligingly forwarded me three eggs, part of a small 
batch he had obtained from a ? during the previous 
summer near Epworth, accompanied by the welcome 
intelligence that he had satisfied himself by experi- 



POLYOMMATUS (LYCLENA) iEGON. 113 

ment that the larvse were alive and stirring within 
the shells, and that he expected them shortly to 
hatch. 

I immediately removed all I had to a cooler place 
than they had. previously been in, so as to retard their 
progress until something could be learned about their 
proper food. 

Considering the small size of the butterfly the egg 
is rather large in proportion. It is white in colour, 
of a circular form, flattened and depressed in the 
centre both above and below, covered with raised 
white reticulation, all except the top. 

The egg does not change colour, but retains its 
pure dead-white appearance even after the exit of the 
larva; a small hole showing like a black spot on the 
side of the shell alone betraying the escape of the 
little creature. 

Mr. Hudson informed me of one of his larvce being 
hatched on the 29th February, which was followed by 
others on the 3rd of March. All were placed on 
various little plants from the locality where the parent 
butterfly had been taken, but from want of the right 
food and partly by accidents they were starved or 
lost. 

On the 28th February Mr. Hellins reported that 
one larva had hatched, and that it soon after died; 
and another on the 6th March, which was placed on 
heather, Lotus corniculatus , and one or two other 
vetches, but with no success. 

On the 18th of March two of my eggs hatched, and 
the larvge were placed with a variety of food, but they 
died without eating, and others soon followed in the 
same way, with Mr. Hellins arid myself. Shortly 
afterwards, however, Mr. Hellins acquainted me with 
the fact of his having distinctly seen one eat a tiny 
hole in the leaflet of a small vetch, Evvum tetra- 
spermum, growing in his garden, and he sent me one 
of the plants, and upon this for some days the larvse 
as they were hatched were placed; but instead of 

vol. i. 8 



114 P0LY0MMATUS (LYOJINA) MOOTS. 

eating they wandered away, or fell off on to the earth 
below, where it was impossible to find them. 

Meanwhile we had not been idle in ventilating the 
subject among our friends, in what seemed a forlorn 
hope of obtaining a clue to the proper food-plant, 
when fortunately at this critical juncture, Mr. Double- 
day kindly gave us the benefit of his excellent memory 
and observation, in recalling the fact of his having 
seen, twenty years ago, this little butterfly in some 
place flitting over Genista anglica and Omithopus 
perpusillus, and that on the latter plant he had noticed 
females alight. 

In the midst of my trouble at losing the young larvae 
daily, and being unable to find the desired Omithopus, 
I fortunately happened to mention the subject to Dr. 
F. B. White, of Perth, and he with great good nature 
and promptitude despatched me a tin full of the plants. 
These were at once potted and sprinkled with water, 
the remaining six or seven eggs put on them in a 
sunny window, and in a day or two, by aid of a lens, 
the young larvae were soon detected. By the 3rd of 
May some small transparent blotches were visible on 
the leaflets on which they had fed, and from that time 
all went well ; after Mr. Hudson's attention had been 
directed to Omithopus perpusillus, he satisfied himself 
that in his locality the butterfly did not occur away 
from that plant ; so it seems there is little doubt of its 
being the natural food. 

When first hatched the larva was about three-fourths 
of a line long, thick in proportion, of equal bulk, and 
rounded at either end, hairy and of a dull bluish-green 
colour, its powers of locomotion of the very feeblest 
description. 

By the 3rd of May they had become rather more 
than a line in length, of a drab colour, and hairy like 
the leafets on which they were feeding. By the 29th 
of May they were from a quarter to three-eighths of 
an inch in length, but still did not eat through the 
leaflets, but only devoured the green cuticle. At this 



POLYOMMATUS (LYCjENA) MGON. 115 

time they were of a deep yellowish-grey, and the 
dorsal stripe blackish-olive edged with whitish, and a 
whitish line along the lateral ridge above the legs ; 
the subdorsal stripe was triple, consisting of two lines 
of blackish- olive with a whitish-grey one between them. 
The surface generally studded with minute blackish 
points, each bearing a fine short hair. 

By June 11th to 15th they had all assumed their last 
coats. 

The full-grown larva is about seven lines long, thick 
in proportion, and of the usual onisciform or Lyccena- 
shape. 

The head small, and retracted when at rest or 
alarmed ; the second segment the longest, rounded, and 
very slightly flattened above, the others as far as the 
tenth with raised prominences on each side of the back, 
and a dorsal hollow between them ; the sides sloping 
to the lateral ridge, the ventral surface rather flattened, 
the legs all placed well underneath. The last three 
segments without dorsal ridges, and sloping gradually 
to the sides and anal extremity, their sides rather con- 
cave, a very prominent wart on each side of the twelfth ; 
the segmental divisions not observable on these last, 
but well cut on all the others. 

In colour the larva is now a bright yellow-green, 
with the dorsal stripe blackish-brown edged with 
whitish from the beginning of the third to the end of 
the tenth segment ; it is widest on the third and fourth, 
being on them of a rather rounded lozenge form, with 
a whitish dot near the edge on each side ; a dull dark- 
brown small plate in front of the second segment, and 
a broad semilunar shaped blotch of the same colour a 
little behind, divided in the middle by a fine line of 
the green ground-colour. The dorsal stripe on the 
eleventh segment becomes broad and squarish, but 
resumes its linear shape on the twelfth and thir- 
teenth. 

The subdorsal line is visible from the beginning of 
the third to the end of the eleventh segment as a 



116 POLYOMMATUS (LYCjENA) MGOTX. 

greenish-yellow line running between two green ones 
darker than the ground colour. 

At the bottom of the sides along the lateral ridge is 
a whitish line commencing on the third segment and 
continued round the anal extremity. Between the 
dorsal and subdorsal lines on segments three to ten 
are faintly paler oblique lines of yellow-green, viz. one 
on each segment sloping downwards and backwards ; 
the warts on the twelfth segment are very often sud- 
denly projected considerably, and then a circle of fine 
short hairs is visible on their extremities. The surface 
of the body is also clothed with similar hairs. The 
head is black, having the base of the papillae and a 
streak across above the mouth of buff colour. 

They had all turned to pupae by the 24th of June, 
one of them being slightly attached to a stem of the 
plant by the anal extremity, and lying, like the others, 
amongst a few loose threads at the very bottom of the 
stems and partly in the earth. 

The pupa is about five lines long, smooth, but with- 
out polish, the top of the head slightly projecting, the 
thorax rounded, the abdomen plump, curving on the 
back outwards and backwards towards the tip, which 
is hidden in the larva skin, the wing-cases prominent 
and long in proportion. It is of a dull green tint, 
with a dark brown dorsal line of arrow-head marks. 

The butterflies appeared July 5th to 17th. (W. B., 
2, 69 ; E.M.M. V, 241.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LyC^Na) AGESTIS (MeDON). 

Plate XVI, fig. 1 (1, 1 a, 1/). 

"When Professor Zeller in 1867 published his most 
interesting history of this species in the 'Entomo- 
logist's Monthly Magazine' (vol. iv, pp. 73-77), he 
stated it to be generally accepted that Lyccena Arta- 
xerxes is only a variety of Medon, Hufnagel (Agestis, 
Ochs.) ; and yet it appeared to him extremely impro- 



POLYOHMATUS (LYCLENA) AGESTIS. 117 

bable that the larva of Medon should habituate itself 
to the food-plant of Artaxerxes. 

I am now able to offer the following evidence that 
the larva of this species really does nourish itself on 
the same species of food-plant in England as in 
Scotland. 

On the 3rd June, 1877, Mr. J. E. Robson, of 
Hartlepool, while searching Helianthemum vulgare 
growing near the coast in his locality, found five larvae 
of a Lyccena, and at once very kindly forwarded them 
to me; on comparing them with the figures I had 
taken of larvae of Artaxerxes in 1868, I found them to 
be in every respect precisely alike. These larvae soon 
fed upon Helianthemum, protected by a glass cylinder, 
and they duly changed to pupae ; two of them were 
unfortunately attacked with mould, but the other three 
disclosed three differently marked butterflies, viz. on 
July 2nd, 5th, and 7th. These appeared to be respec- 
tively Salmacis, Artaxerxes, and Agestis above, but to 
partake most of Salmacis beneath. 

After this result, I became more than ever desirous 
of seeing larvae of the typical Agestis from the southern 
downs, and it was not many weeks before Mr. Wm. R. 
Jeffrey most kindly put me in the way of making their 
acquaintance from the egg onwards, by his capturing 
several typical females as they were flying over and 
alighting upon Helianthemum vulgare, on a Kentish 
chalk down. They readily deposited their eggs on 
sprays of the plant, and I had the pleasure to receive 
a share of them from my friend on the 13th of 
September, when I found them all laid on the under- 
sides of the leaves to which they firmly adhered, 
singly, and in little groups of twos, threes, or more 
together. 

The egg is smaller than that of JEgon, though very 
like it in form and sculpture, being circular, flattened, 
with a central depression on the upper surface, the 
shell covered with a coarse, prominent reticulation, 
gradually becoming finer towards the nearly smooth 



118 POLYOMMATUS (LYOJ]NA) AGESTIS. 

depression ; its colour, a pale greenish- drab, continues 
to the last. A hole in the shell betrays the escape of 
the larva, which is a very sluggish little creature, not 
inclined to leave the underside of the leaf where it is 
hatched, even when the leaf has become dry ; indeed, 
all the leaves on which the eggs were laid had curled 
and shrivelled so much when the larva were hatched, 
as to make their detection and rescue while alive 
rather difficult. 

I observed the first three larvse on the 19th of 
September, one of them already dead, and on the 22nd, 
eighteen more, with some of them apparently dead or 
dying. 

A month previously I was provided with a very large 
pot of turf cut from a chalk hill, and amongst grasses, 
Leguminosce, and other low plants, some fine shoots of 
Helianthemum vulgare were also growing ; on these 
last the young larva3 were placed. Next morning, 
about half of them lay dead, and the others had dis- 
appeared. But after a day or two I began to detect 
signs of the survivors, by small flesh-coloured spots 
appearing on the upper dark green surface of a few of 
the leaves ; these spots gradually increased in size to 
blotches of irregular figure, and turned of a rusty pale 
brown colour; when seen from beneath against the 
light, they appeared semitransparent and colourless, 
and sometimes then the tiny larvas appeared as a dark 
object against the luminous blotch. 

By the 20th of October a few leaves had their lower 
cuticle almost entirely eaten away, and their upper 
surface turned brown, but so slow was the growth of 
the larvse that they had only attained one line in 
length by the 3rd of November, and though they fed a 
little at intervals, and crept from one part of their 
food to another up to the end of the month, yet they 
were never seen on any of the other plants around 
them, but only on the under surface of the leaves of 
Helianthemum, where they became eventually fixed for 
hibernation. 



POLYOMMATUS (LYC^ENA) AGESTIS. 119 

The pot containing the larvae and the various plants 
was kept entirely uncovered inside a window of 
western aspect ; the grasses were much grown by the 
7th of March, 1878, when I could only see two larvae 
on a new shoot of their food, and on the 14th only one, 
whereupon I began to cut down the grass (a blade at 
a time) carefully, so as to lay bare the few new scat- 
tered shoots of Helianthemum, which were from one to 
two, or three inches above ground, and very near the 
margin of the pot. On the 21st, the second larva was 
again visible on a little shoot close to the earth, and 
two more larvae, less advanced, on other small shoots, 
were seen on April 14th. 

Here it may be proper to state the fact, that after 
hibernation, neither of the larvae fed at all on any of 
the mature sprays of the plant, which seemed appa- 
rently healthy and vigorous, but pertinaciously sought 
the young tender shoots, eating a portion from under 
a leaf, then a little from another leaf, or moved away 
entirely, creeping over the ground and through all 
impeding growths, until, with unerring instinct, 
another shoot, sooner or later, was reached ; thus I 
was continually losing sight of one or more of the 
larvae often for days together, but only to find them 
again by the aid of new blotches appearing to betray 
them. 

Towards the end of April they ravaged so recklessly 
the small stock of their food remaining in the pot, 
never staying to clear the whole underside of a leaf, 
but changing their quarters so often that I began to 
fear they would desert the pot and escape altogether. 
At that time I was unable to obtain a fresh supply of 
their food, and to make sure of completing my obser- 
vations of the larva when full grown, I confined the 
two largest individuals in a bottle, and supplied them 
with cut portions of their food, on which they throve, 
and therein attained their full growth of barely half an 
inch ; and on the 15th of May one fixed itself for pupa- 
tion by a cincture across the back of the fourth seg- 



120 POLYOMMATUS (LYC^NA) AGESTIS. 

merit, on a bit of linen, the second followed in the 
same way on the 16th, and on the 21st and 24th they 
changed to pupse. The two remaining larvse soon after 
fixed themselves, but died unchanged, probably the 
effect of insufficient food. 

The newly-hatched larva is very minute, with a glis- 
tening blackish head, stoutish body, of a light drab- 
green colour, velvety and hairy ; its size is doubled in 
eight days, and when a month old it is of the usual 
Lyccena-shsupe, one line in length, thick in proportion, 
with small retractile head, the body of a dull pinkish- 
brown colour, with darker dorsal stripe, and rather 
hairy. 

On waking up in spring it is of a dingy slaty-green 
colour, and early in March it moults, when the old 
skin is left attached to the plant like an empty shell, 
not in the least shrivelled, but split open laterally along 
the ridge above the legs. The larva now becomes quite 
pale green on the back, broadly pinkish along the lateral 
ridge, and still hairy. Early in April it is nearly an 
eighth of an inch long, of greenish flesh colour, palest 
on the second segment and dorsal eminences, pinkish 
in the dorsal hollow, and also beneath the spiracular 
region, the long whitish hairs closely resembling those 
of the food-plant. 

The last moult occurs about the 21st of April, when 
it is three- sixteenths of an inch long, and attains its 
full growth of barely half an inch early in May ; during 
this interval of course the larva shows all its charac- 
teristic details, which are just like those of the local 
Northern variety (Artaxerwes) (as described 6 Entom. 
Monthly Mag., ? vol. v, p. 176), and all I can say of the 
type form is that the green colour is more lively and 
full, and the pink along the lateral region is darker, 
inclining to purplish. 

It only remains for me to state that my experiments 
have proved to me the truth of what Zeller kmg ago 
suspected, and siuce then Newman and others have be- 
lieved that Artaxerxes, Salmacis, and Agestis (Medon) 



POLYOMMATUS (LTO^ENA) AGESTIS. 121 

are but one species.* (W. B., 4, 2, 79 ; E.M.M. XV, 
241.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LYC2ENA) AGESTIS {MeDON), VAR. 

Artaxerxes. 
Plate XVI, fig. 1 (1 b, 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, 1 g). 

On the 8th May, 1868, Mr. Doubleday kindly pre- 
sented me with the larvse of Artaxerxes, about half 
grown, which had been sent to him by Mr. Wilson, of 
Edinburgh, who found them on Helianthemum vulgare. 

They fed well on this plant, and were always on the 
undersides of the leaves, to which they assimilated so 
well as to be difficult of detection. 

The larva is of the usual Lyccena shape, somewhat 
onisciform, short and thick, being arched on the back, 
sloping on the sides, the spiracular region swollen 
and projecting laterally much beyond the ventral 
prolegs. The segments appear deeply divided, espe- 
cially on the back, down which are two rows of rather 
peaked cone-like eminences, with a dorsal hollow 
between them ; the second segment simply rounded 
above, and rather longer than the others, and tapering 
a little near the head, which is very small and retrac- 
tile ; the anal segment tapers very little, is rounded 
behind and hollowed above on the sides ; the twelfth 
segment has a small but prominent wart on each side. 

The half-grown larva is from three to four lines in 
length, pale green in colour, and clothed with very 
fine and short whitish bristles. The dorsal line 
beginning on the fourth and ending on the twelfth 
segment is of a faint brown, though wider and more 
strongly marked just at the beginning of each seg- 
ment, and widest at its termination on the penulti- 
mate. 

* [The elaborate notice of the two reputed species by the late George 
"Wailes, in his " Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Northumberland and 
Durham," published in the ' Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' 
Field Club for 1858/ vol. ii, part 4, p. 189, should here be noted.— H.T.S.] 



122 POLYOMMATUS (LYOJENA) AGESTIS. 

On the sides of the fifth to the tenth segments are 
double oblique lines slanting backwards and down- 
wards, of paler green in front and darker green 
behind than that of the ground colour. At this stage 
of growth the lateral projecting ridge of swellings 
broadly pink, with scarcely an indication of a central 
paler stripe; the belly and ventral prolegs pale 
yellowish-green ; the anterior legs flesh colour. The 
head black, the base of the papillae flesh colour, and a 
streak of the same above the mouth. 

On approaching full growth its length is about half 
an inch ; the oblique stripes gradually disappear, and 
its green colour becomes rather darker; a pinkish- 
white stripe runs along the lateral prominences, 
broadly bordered above by a stripe of rose-pink, and 
beneath by a broader stripe of still darker pink. The 
spiracles are flesh colour, situated in the upper pink 
stripe, very minute and inconspicuous. The ventral 
prolegs green, the anterior legs pinkish, spotted with 
brown. 

Two changed to the pupa state on May 21st, and 
a third a week later, all in nearly perpendicular posi- 
tions, amongst, and slightly attached to, the stems of 
the Helianthemum by a few silk threads near the 
ground. 

The pupa is about four lines in length, smooth, and 
without polish, rather thick in proportion, the head 
rounded and prominent, the thorax rounded above, 
the abdomen plump and curved a little backwards, its 
extremity being hidden in the shrivelled larva-skin 
which adheres to it. The colour of the head, thorax, 
and wing-cases blue-green, a black curved streak 
obliquely placed on each side of the head ; the abdo- 
men yellowish-flesh colour, a deep pink stripe at the 
sides enclosing a central white one, which can also be 
seen showing through part of the wing-covers. 

Two of the butterflies appeared on June 13th and 
14th. (W. B. ; E.M.M. Y, 176.) 



THYMELE ALVEOLUS. 123 

Thymele ALVEOLUS. 
Plate XVI, fig. 2. 

At the end of May and beginning of June, 1874, I 
captured a score or more of these butterflies and shut 
them up in a glass cylinder with bramble sprays ; they 
would not, however, spare me more than seven or 
eight eggs, which were laid on June 2nd or 3rd. The 
larvae began to hatch on June 12th, and by the 18th 
four had come out ; the rest died in the egg, having 
begun, but not being able to complete their liberation. 
Three also of the four larvge, that had been safely 
hatched, soon died ; but the survivor throve and 
grew, by July 9th it was one- sixth of an inch long, by 
the 17th nearly half an inch long. About the 1st of 
August it moulted for the last time, and soon attained 
its full length of about five-eighths of an inch, after- 
wards increasing only in stoutness. After the end of 
August it remained apparently dormant for days 
together, eating only at intervals ; and about Sep- 
tember 20th it became a pupa. 

Meanwhile, on July 29th, I had found another larva 
in the locality where I took the imago, which very 
nearly corresponded in growth with my bred example, 
but it unfortunately died without changing. 

Throughout, observation of their appearance was 
very difficult, owing to their habit of living in conceal- 
ment, and in fact, I believe the mortality which pre- 
vailed among my small stock was owing to disturbance 
caused by attempts at peeping, measuring, &c. 

Probably, in freedom, the perfect insect has some 
constant method of depositing her eggs ; but the few 
I had, having been laid in confinement, seemed to be 
placed indifferently on the upper or under sides of 
leaves, or on stems ; however, I think the newly 
hatched larva chooses the upper surface of a small leaf 
for its habitat (unless, perhaps, as I have lately 
thought on reflection, it may prefer the blossom), and 



124 THYMELE ALVEOLUS. 

settling itself along the midrib, at once spins several 
silken threads overhead for a covering, under which it 
feeds by eating away the upper cuticle ; and when it 
has made a blotch of some little extent, it moves away 
and repeats the process on another leaf ; as it grows 
bigger, still choosing the upper surface of a leaf for its 
standpoint, it forms its covering by drawing down 
another leaf over it, fastening the edges here, and there 
with stout threads, and feeds away in the cave thus 
formed ; when, however, it has attained some size I 
think it must come out of its cave and eat the neigh- 
bouring leaves in the usual way, but I only once or 
twice saw either of my larvas thus exposed of its own 
choice ; the habit throughout the larval state is to be 
very sluggish, and a great part of the time must be 
passed by the larva in resting with its head curled 
round sideways towards its tail. 

In the very limited time I could devote to searching 
for larvge, I found numbers of deserted caves, but only 
one tenanted, and this seemed to prove that my 
examples in confinement acted pretty much as they 
would have had they been at large. As mentioned 
above, I gave the butterflies bramble sprays to lay on, 
and I searched brambles for the larvae, and came to 
the conclusion that stunted bushes with small leaves had 
the preference, the large juicy leaves of strong bushes 
apparently offering no temptation. 

I did not omit to look for the other plants on which 
the larva has been said to feed ; in the same locality 
were some half dozen plants of mallow (Malva mos- 
chata), but I am positive they bore no traces of larvas, 
and there was not one plant of teazle. The wild 
strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been suggested also 
as a likely plant, and I think it would probably occur 
wherever the butterfly is seen; but, as far as I feel 
justified in giving an opinion, I do not think there is 
any need to look for anything more than the bramble 
(Bubus fruticosus) . * 

* I fear I was too positive here as to bramble being the usual food 



THYMELE ALVEOLUS. 125 

The egg is globular, with base rather flattened ; the 
shell ribbed rather irregularly with about eighteen ribs, 
and transversely reticulated with very even fine lines, 
which do not stop at the ribs, but cross them, giving 
their edges a rough appearance which is not real, but 
only caused by the ribs, otherwise translucent, 
becoming opaque where the lines cross ; as usual a 
small space on the top of the egg is covered only with 
very fine concentric reticulation; the colour is very 
pale green all over. 

The young larva makes its escape by cutting a large 
round hole through the top of the egg ; in colour it is 
very pale green, with head and collar shining black ; 
every tubercular dot bears a pale bristle, longish and 
straight on the head and thirteenth segment, but on 
the other segments bifid, with the tips curved on either 
side like an unbarbed double fish-hook. When about 
a sixth of an inch long the colour is pale purplish-pink, 
the head still black ; when nearly half an inch long it 
is pale green again, the whole skin now thickly set 
with short straight hairs ; the bifid bristles have been 
parted with, I imagine, at the first moult. 

When full-grown, the length is rather over five 
eighths of an inch, the figure very stout, the head 
horny, globular, and stuck like a knob on the second 
segment, which, however, is not so strikingly narrow 
as in Thanaos Tages ; the skin granulated in appear- 
ance ; the head and whole body covered thickly with 
short fine pale hairs ; the general colour a pale 
ochreous-green, the second segment pinkish, and a 
faint reddish tinge over the back of the other front 
segments ; a thin dorsal, and somewhat broader sub- 
dorsal line, not easy to be seen, of the ground colour, 
and a faint spiracular line ; the spiracles not much 
darker than the ground colour ringed with the same 
tint as the lines ; the belly freckly ; the head 

of the larva; Mr. W. H. Harwood has discovered that it feeds more 
commonly on Potentilla fragariastrum (the barren wild strawberry or 
strawberry-leaved cinquefoil). — J. H, 



126 THYMELE ALVEOLUS. 

and collar very dark purplish-brown, the upper lip 
paler. 

The pupa is enclosed in a cave between two or three 
leaves, similar to that in which the larva lives, but 
fastened with stouter silk, and the openings protected 
by a loose pale yellow webbing. Its length is not quite 
half an inch, the figure thick and stumpy ; the eyes 
prominent, the wing-cases well developed ; the whole 
skin rather rough ; the middle of the head, the eyes, 
and the back set with short stiff hairs, the ground- 
colour reddish-grey, the wing-cases pinkish-grey ; the 
abdomen tinged with brownish-red along the back ; on 
the centre of the head, on the eyes, and on either side 
of the thorax above the wing-cases, are some blackish- 
brown marks ; there are smaller marks in pairs down 
the middle of the thorax, and there are transverse 
rows of spots on the segments of the abdomen, the 
largest and darkest being next the wing-cases ; the 
hairs are light brownish-red; the anterior spiracle is 
black, the others of the grey ground-colour, ringed 
with black, and placed within the largest dark blotches. 
(J. H., 11, 2, 75; E.M.M. XI, 236.) 

I hardly know if it is worth recording that a larva, 
reared from an egg deposited by a butterfly of the type 
form, has resulted in an imago of the variety lavateixe, 
Haw. (J. H., 17, 11, 75 ; E.M.M. XII, 232.) 



Thanaos Tages. 
Plate XVI, fig. 3. 

On the 28th of May, 1868, I happened to meet with 
this species on the wing in a thicket and brought home 
with me three specimens alive ; and luckily having a 
plant of Lotus comiculatus potted, I covered it with a 
glass cylinder and placed them therein. 

After a few days I saw that two of the butterflies 
were dead, whilst the third still looked lively, and 
fortunately proving to be an impregnated female, she 



THANAOS TAGES. 127 

deposited on the leaflets of the plant a few pale greenish 
pellucid eggs, of a somewhat elliptical figure standing 
on end. 

About the middle of June I noticed the egg-shells 
were empty, but I could not see the young larvse either 
then, or for some time subsequently, until June 28th, 
when at last I detected them, three in number, they 
had been all the while feeding in little caves, formed by 
drawing together three leaflets with silken threads, 
and it was the glistening of these threads in the sun 
that first caught my eye. Each cave was formed by 
the two outer leaflets being drawn almost close together 
(leaving space enough for the ejection of "frass"), 
and the middle one being bent over them like a curved 
roof; all this was managed quite naturally, so that the 
cave passed easily for a leaf not quite expanded. 

Some of these caves had already served their turn 
and been abandoned for newer ones, and it appeared 
that the larvse had been feeding on the inner surface 
of the leaflets ; in the others I was able by the help of 
a lens to detect through the interstices somewhat of 
the fat form of their tenants. 

On the 30th of June I turned one out for figuring ; 
it was then nearly three-eighths of an inch long, with 
a prominent dark purplish-brown head, covered with 
minute pale greenish points ; the body rounded above, 
a little flattened underneath, plump, and tapering a 
little at each end ; the second segment much smaller 
than the third, especially in the part just behind the 
head; the colour of the body a pale rather bluish- 
green, somewhat paler still on the sides and belly, a 
distinct dorsal line of darker green, a subdorsal line 
faintly paler than the ground colour ; the whole sur- 
face of the back and sides irrorated or shagreened with 
exceedingly minute greenish- white points. 

These most interesting little fellows continued to 
feed and grow, and as they began now to eat away the 
whole thickness of the leaflets forming their caves, 
their ravages exposed their bodies to light, and as soon 



128 THANAOS TAGES. 

as this happened they moved off to new habitations ; 
this change of residence always took place at night, 
though from the slow and deliberate pace at which 
they moved, it could hardly be called a " flitting." 

Throughout July these larvae consumed a great 
quantity of food, so that I had frequently to renew my 
plant of Lotus, but still they hid themselves, and kept 
quiet so persistently, that I no longer wondered how 
it was that no one had ever found this common species 
for me, even though its food-plant was known. 

After various moultings I secured three more figures 
of them at intervals, and by July 31st they had attained 
their full growth. At this time the larvae is nearly 
three-quarters of an inch in length, with the back a 
little arched and the belly rather flattened, being just 
of the same form as when younger ; the body is very 
plump, and thickest in the middle segments, the seg- 
mental folds distinct, each segment also subdivided 
into five portions, the broadest one in front ; the head 
is somewhat heart-shaped and flattened on the face ; 
the colour of the body is rather more of a yellowish- 
green than before, the minute raised points blackish, 
the dorsal line a darker green, and the subdorsal paler 
stripe delicately edged above and below with a fine 
faintly darker line ; the anterior pair of tubercular 
dots just perceptible on each segment, but only with a 
strong lens ; the spiracular region forming a slight 
ridge of paler whitish-green, the spiracles very small 
and red in colour; the head is purplish-brown as 
before, but with the addition of an ochreous streak 
from the crown down the front of each lobe, united 
below by another broad transverse streak at some 
distance above the mouth, and also of a spot of the 
same colour on each cheek. 

Having sent one to Mr. Hellins, I found my two 
remaining larvae had, early in August, fairly left their 
hiding places, and were ascending the sides of the 
cylinder, first one and afterwards the other ; presently 
having gained a footing on the green leno cover at the 



THANAOS TAGES. 129 

top, they began to spin threads of silk and to pucker 
up the leno into a fusiform shape ; the foundation 
threads were very strong and thick, spun parallel to 
each other, in a little transverse series at each end of 
the retreat. The larva that was first on the leno con- 
trived to complete its hybernaculum ; but the other, 
after spinning the two bundles of parallel threads to 
form the two ends of its intended winter quarters, was 
unable to find the leno slack enough for puckering 
into the required shape, and began again the next day 
at another part, but was again defeated, and finally 
relinquished its attempt on the leno, and went below 
among the plants. Some weeks afterwards I found it 
on the earth killed by mildew. The same fate befel 
the one which I had sent to Mr. Hellins. 

The other slumbered safely through the winter, until 
early in April, 1869 a ray of sunshine reached it, and 
I saw the larva coming out as though in distress to 
escape either the warmth or the strong light ; where- 
upon I shifted the glass to a pot containing a violet 
plant, and the larva crawled down the sides till it found 
the violet leaves, and then selecting two near the 
bottom in a shady position, in an hour it had spun a 
retreat between them as they lay horizontally one below 
the other. But I suppose this operation exhausted its 
strength, for when, after waiting in vain for the 
butterfly to appear at the proper time, I pulled the 
leaves asunder, I found it had died without having 
become a pupa. (W. B., 1, 70; E.M.M. VI, 233.) 



Stbeopes Paniscqs. 
Plate XVII, fig. 1. 

On the 7th of June, 1883, I received from Herr 
Heinrich Disque, of Speyer, a batch of eggs laid by a 
female butterfly of this species on Glechoma hederacea. 
"Why he had given her this plant on which to lay, I 
cannot say. The shape of the head is hemispherical, 

vol, i. 9 



130 STEEOPES PANISOUS. 

with flat base, its colour white and shining, like porce- 
lain. On the 11th of June some few showed a dark 
spot at or near the top, and on the 12th this had 
spread to a large, dingy-greyish blotch, and sullied the 
entire surface as the shells became more transparent. 
On the 13th this dark central blotch seemed to change 
to a blackish round spot, and on the 14th was perfectly 
black and shining, when it soon became evident it was 
the naked head of the larva eating its way through the 
shell ; and in the course of another hour or two the 
larva crept out of this hole in the top of the shell, on 
which it made its breakfast, eating away the sides of 
it until but very little remained. 

The newly-hatched larva has a largish head and 
uniformly cylindrical body, which is velvety white ; 
the head is black and shining, and there is a shining 
black linear plate on the second segment. 

Various plants were put with the three larvse first 
hatched besides grasses, and in the evening I had the 
satisfaction of seeing a small notch was eaten quite 
through the edge of a leaf of Brachyjpodium sylvaticum, 
and a larva lying along the leaf close by. 

After feeding a couple of days the colour of the body 
changes from white to a very faint tint of bluish-green ; 
the larva crawls very slowly and keeps near to that 
part of the leaf it has attacked, showing no disposition 
to wander away. 

The hatching continued, but in a desultory way, 
being evidently delayed by the cold north winds at this 
time. On the 19th three or four seemed to have made 
their arrangements for moulting, by drawing the tips 
of the leaves together, so as to form little cylindrical 
retreats ; these were securely fastened by spinnings of 
silk. In two instances these retreats were made near 
the middle of the leaf with a portion curled round and 
fastened, this process being made practicable by the 
larva having previously eaten out a notch from the edge 
both above and below the part that was curled round. 

By the 22nd they had doubled their length, but 



STEROPES PANISOUS. 131 

some accidental deaths having occurred, I put out the 
remaining six or seven on a growing tuft of the grass, 
and presently watched one creep up to near the top of 
a leaf and make cross ties of silk, which drew that 
part of the leaf together in a somewhat tubular form, 
an occupation which lasted four hours, before the little 
creature retired within to rest from its labour. The 
next morning I could see where it had eaten a piece 
out from the edge of the leaf half an inch below its 
residence, and could then detect the similar abodes of 
five others. By the next evening the tip of the leaf 
had become very much more attenuated, and formed 
quite a cylindrical long point as far down as the notch 
at the edge. 

By the 30th of June this individual had become 
whitish-green on the body, with a decided bluish-green 
soft dorsal line, faintly bordered with a paler whitish 
stripe ; a whitish subdorsal line was also just visible ; 
the head brilliantly black and shining, and also the 
linear plate on the second segment. This segment 
seemed not to have grown, and now appeared short. 

After some time their tubular residences became 
more conspicuous, and the leaves on the top of which 
they were formed became more ravaged below them, 
and by the 20th of July most of them were bitten 
through at the midrib and had fallen away empty, and 
larger tubes were made on fresh leaves. On opening 
one of these on the 3rd of August I found the larva 
waiting to moult ; it was exactly 6 lines long, of a 
delicate light, rather bluish, green, with a dorsal line of 
slightly darker green, edged with a fine soft whitish 
line ; a broad very pale bluish-green stripe of the back 
follows, then a line of darker green like the dorsal line, 
followed by a stoutish line of whitish ; the head black 
and rough ; the linear transverse plate on the second 
segment is interrupted on either side by the green 
ground separating a small part of the black ; an 
unbroken black rough plate is on the anal segment. 

On the 6th of August I took a larva from its tube, 



132 STEROPES PANISCUS. 

or rather, I should say, that in attempting to tear away 
a small strip from the tube the larva took fright and 
leaped nimbly out of it, then remaining, without a 
movement, perfectly still for nearly two hours. It was 
of a green colour, very soft and velvety-looking, the 
lines on the body as above described ; the head dark 
green, marked with black on each lobe and between 
them on the crown, a black spot on each side of the 
face, ocelli black ; on the very short second segment 
is a black transverse mark in the middle and a black 
spot close outside the subdorsal line, and another 
smaller lower down; these are the development of 
the former linear plate ; the anal segment is very pale 
green, with a dorsal mark of black on the flap. The 
subdorsal line is the palest and is well relieved above 
and below by the darkish full green, which it runs 
through; beneath this are two extremely faint fine 
paler lines, only just perceptible. The length at this 
time was 6 J lines. The general green colour is a trifle 
deeper than that of Pamjphila linea. 

On the 18th of August I saw a larva two -thirds of 
an inch long and very slender, commencing to make a 
new tube for itself. On the 24th I saw a larva in the 
act of leaving its case, after all the leaf at either end 
had been eaten away to the midrib, by which alone it 
was supported. I cut it off and then figured it with 
the larva upon it, deliberately advancing towards the 
stalk to find another leaf to construct a fresh dwelling. 
This larva measured exactly 9 lines long and was in 
all details as above described, except that the remains 
of the black linear plate on the second segment were 
now only a dorsal spot and a fine dot well below the 
subdorsal region. The anal flap was a trifle concave on 
its surface, tapering to a rounded-off point beyond the 
anal prolegs ; it bore a broadish black dorsal rough 
stripe. The segments behind the thoracic were all sub- 
divided by transverse wrinkles into five rings, of which 
the first ring was the widest, the second nearly as wide, 
and the other three very much narrower. 



STEROPES PANISOUS. 133 

On the same day whilst putting this larva back on 
the grass I saw another of exactly the same dimensions, 
but it looked paler and as though it had quite recently 
moulted; it was gliding at an almost imperceptible 
pace in quest of a fresh leaf/ which it soon found, and 
in the course of an hour or two it was domiciled, as 
was also the larva I had laid upon a leaf after 
figuring it. 

On the 29th of August I saw one larva 9 lines 
long laid up waiting for a moult, partly on the edge 
and partly on the underside of a leaf, with the head 
downwards ; in this condition the second segment was 
longer and larger than the third. About this time 
several larvae showed themselves as they quickly 
devoured their cases, first eating the lower part of the 
leaf below their tube all but the midrib, then devouring 
the top of the leaf above the tubular part, and lastly 
the tube itself, until by degrees it became too short to 
shelter them, when they deserted it and cut through 
the midrib, which caused the tubular remains to fall 
away, after which they glided off to select a fresh leaf 
for the construction of another tubular abode. 

On the 1st of September the larva that had laid up 
since the 29th of August moulted during the night, and 
had made itself a tube. 

On the 4th of September I picked up two larvse 
deserting the grass ; I then cut off all the remaining 
tubes and found that I had seven or eight larvae ; two 
only had black markings as in my earlier figure, the 
others had moulted them away; that which I had 
figured on the 24th of August had moulted since the 
1st of September, and was now 10 lines long and with 
a plain paler green head, and hinder plate of the same 
colour as the belly, the ocelli black, and the finest 
possible line of black at the junction of the lobes on 
the crown. 

On the 23rd of September I observed one on the 
stick used to prop up the grass, it was lying along the 
stick at full length, which gave me a good opportunity 



134 STEEOPES PANISCUS. 

for measuring it, when I found it to be exactly one 
inch. 

It is a very timid larva, as, when at all disturbed, it 
coils itself up in a moment, and so remains for an hour 
or more. 

On the 27th of September I observed another just 
an inch long. It had the upper lip yellowish, the 
mouth blackish, the ocelli black; the primrose-yellow 
subdorsal line was relieved, both above and below, by 
a line of deeper green than the ground colour, followed 
beneath by a soft paler line ; lower, again, the trachea 
showed through the skin as a faintly paler fine line, 
on which were the reddish spiracles ; all the rest as 
before mentioned. 

By the 6th of October all had attained the length 
of one inch and were of a very pale yellow-greenish 
tint, with all the details of the lines as before, only 
fainter ; the next day I found one 13^ lines in 
length. Most of them now made very imperfect tubes 
and seemed content to lie along the underside of a 
leaf, the top of which they soon devoured. 

On the 10th of October one had spun itself up by 
drawing a leaf round itself as it lay on the underside. 
The leaf not being broad enough, the two edges did 
not quite meet and the interstice had been well 
covered with whitish silk, forming a complete cylin- 
drical silk-lined hybernaculum ; other larvae seemed 
ready to follow this example. 

On the 18th of October I noticed one larva lying 
under a leaf which it had caused to hang down by its 
having eaten out a portion from one side of the leaf 
close to the midrib about an inch from the stem, and a 
smaller wedge-shaped portion from the other side of 
the leaf. The weight of the larva made it hang down 
gently at an angle, and as the larva was thus lying 
with its head downwards towards the tip of the leaf, 
when hungry it advanced to the tip and ate it away, 
and, having satisfied its hunger, moved backwards 
towards the bend of the leaf. (W. B., Note Book IV, 
196.) 



pamphila action. 135 

Pamphila Action. 
Plate XVII, fig. 2. 

On the 11th of June 1873, Mr. Thomas Parmiter, 
of Kimmeridge, Dorset, very kindly sent me four 
larvae of this species found by him on Brachyjpodium 
sylvaticum, a grass growing abundantly along the 
downs facing the sea, where the subsoil is of chalk or 
limestone, from Swanage to Weymouth. Along this 
region the detached haunts of Actceon are scattered, 
each locality being within one or two hundred yards or 
so of the shore, having a southern aspect, and well 
sheltered from the north by a hill. In these favoured 
spots Actceon is plentiful. 

I found these larvae take readily to Triticum 
repens, which was potted for them, and their habit 
of feeding was as follows : ascending high up the 
blades of the grass they began eating out a wedge- 
shaped portion from the side which cut off the 
pointed top, leaving an oblique edge above, and either 
fed there on the upper edge for a little, or proceeded 
to eat away large wedge-shaped pieces from the side 
of the blade; when tired of feeding, they removed 
lower down to the middle of the blade, and there spun 
a coating of white silk from one side to the other, 
causing the two edges of the blade to draw together 
a little, and then in the silk-lined hollow they 
would rest for awhile, coming out again to feed. For 
a time, I placed one of the larvae on Triticum pungens* 
a stouter and tougher grass, with which it seemed 
perfectly contented, and behaved in all respects as it 
had before on T. repens. 

These larvae had attained their full length by the 
time they reached me, but continued to increase 
somewhat in bulk till June 20th, and by the 23rd they 
had ceased to feed, and were beginning to fasten 

* Triticum pungens is not British ; probably T.junceuw, which grows 
on sandy coasts, is here meant. — H. T. S. 



136 PAMPHILA ACTION. 

themselves within more closely constructed retreats, 
formed where two blades of the grass obliquely crossed 
each other ; however, a few days later, probably from 
the grass not being quite free from mould, two of them 
abandoned their places, and found others suitable to 
themselves, where they pupated in horizontal positions 
under a projecting ledge that supported the glass 
superstructure of the cage. One of the individuals that 
remained spun up on the grass and pupated there, with 
its head uppermost in nearly a perpendicular position. 

The butterflies appeared on July 14th, 17th, and 
18th, viz. two females and a male ; in each case the 
imago came forth at night, the insect being ready for 
flight in the morning. 

The full-grown larvae were from six-eighths to 
seven-eighths of an inch in length, and iu figure 
(leaving out the head) tapered a little to each end, the 
second segment being the smallest and very short. 
The head swells out again beyond the size of the second 
segment, but not to such an extent as in some others 
of the genus. 

But, in justice to Professor Zeller, I will here quote 
from his admirable observations and account of this 
larva from the egg to full growth, which were published 
in 1862 in ' The Weekly Entomologist/ vol. I, pp. 
10—12. 

" * * * When full grown they seek for a retired 
shelter, which they find in a corner between some 
leaves, of which they form a spacious habitation by 
spinning in the open parts a thin wall of whitish silk 
web, with large and very irregular meshes ; the 
resting place being thickly covered with whitish silk, 
but most thickly where the tail of the larva is to rest. 
In four or five days it changes into the pupa. 

" This larva is of the general form of Pamphila, i.e. 
cylindrical, tapering towards the tail and head, the 
latter being large and, as it were, separated from the 
trunk by a string. It is of a pale greyish-green, with 
the dorsal vessel darker, and edged with a slender pale 



PAMPHILA AOTiEON. 137 

yellow line on either side, and enclosing a pale longi- 
tudinal line along its middle. A narrow yellowish line 
runs above on the side and a broader one below. The 
two dorsal lines are prolonged as far as the middle of 
the head, and run to the end of the flat anal shield, 
which is narrowly edged with pale yellow. The 
transverse folds of the skin are yellowish. The head 
is rounded, with inflated cheeks, the brownish mouth 
sunk deep between them. The colour of the head is 
brown in the young larva, paler in the older ones, with 
the two yellowish lines very distinct and exteriorly 
edged with brown, — greenish in the oldest ones, with 
lines stouter and paler, without darker edges. The 
legs are very short and greenish, the ventral ones 
having usually a longitudinal yellowish stripe. The 
two snow-white patches on the underside of the tenth 
and eleventh segments are conspicuous as in P. lineola, 
sylvcmus, and comma, and appear to be a peculiarity of 
the whole genus. This white substance is spread out 
at the tail end of the larva of P. Actceon, when it has 
formed its chrysalis case." 

As regards my four larvse, but little can be added to 
the foregoing, — merely that the spiracles were pale 
flesh-colour, situated on a fine and faint pale line, which 
touched them in front and vanished behind each 
spiracle ; that the lower pale stripe was inflated, and 
rather overlapped the ventral prolegs ; that the surface 
of the head and the body was slightly roughened with 
minute granulations, especially on the thoracic and 
three last segments, which bore a number of minute 
black points, that the rest of the upper surface was 
faintly freckled with rather darker green than the pale 
ground ; that the ocelli were black, and the anal shield 
fringed with a few fine hairs ; and that as they matured 
their glaucous tint gave way to a paler and more 
yellowish- green. 

The slender pupa is three-quarters of an inch in 
length, two lines across the arched thorax, where it is 
widest, though the head, with its large prominent eyes, 



138 PAMPHILA ACTION. 

is almost as wide; the top of the head is a trifle 
flattened, and has a beak -like process projecting 
forwards of a flattened triangular shape, its base lying 
across the head between the eyes ; the abdomen tapers 
very gradually towards the anal portion, which ends 
in a prolonged and blunt flattened tip, furnished with 
a circlet of exceedingly minute recurved hooks. The 
wings, antennas, and legs are plainly developed, and 
the proboscis is extended at full length down the 
abdomen, from which it lies wholly free towards its 
extremity. 

Its colouring at first, and up to within four days of 
the advent of the imago, closely resembles that of the 
last larval period, viz. a very pale and delicate yellowish- 
green, on which all the lines of the larva, though faint, 
are distinctly to be seen. The first indication of its 
approaching change is a gradual suffusion of pink over 
the thorax, which, with the wing covers, in twenty- 
four hours becomes of a dingy greyish- purple hue, the 
back of the abdomen a light brownish- olive tint, the 
divisions appearing as paler rings, the beak and tail 
purplish-grey. In this advanced stage the change of 
colour is considerable even in an hour or two ; it grows 
by degrees deeper olive on the back of the abdomen 
with a dingy purple dorsal stripe; as the body and 
thorax darken to purplish-black, so in proportion do 
the frontal and caudal projections fade away to a 
greyish ashy paleness, and become semi-transparent, as 
though empty ; finally, the surface becomes as though 
covered generally with a misty reddish-grey bloom. It 
is in the purple -blackish stage of colour that the fine 
cincture, drawn tight round the front of the thorax, 
and secured a little behind to each side of its abode by a 
thickening of the silk, is most plainly seen by its 
whiteness ; the few stout threads that cross over the 
pupa at each end, more or less obliquely, do not touch 
it at all, but serve as security for its habitation, and 
possibly as protective outworks while it lies fastened on 
its silken carpet. (W. B., 22, 7, 73 ; E.M.M. X, 86.) 



PAMPHILA LINEA. 139 

PAMPHILA LINEA. 

Plate XVII, fig. 3. 

Of this long wished for larva I had the great pleasure 
to receive six fine examples on the 11th June, 1882, 
from Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, who, most kindly mind- 
ful of my desiderata, when finding himself at their 
locality in the eastern division of Sussex, on the even- 
ing of the 9th, succeeded in sweeping them from 
Holcas lanatus, a very soft pubescent grass, with which 
they assimilated both in colour and texture most 
remarkably well. 

They had evidently done moulting, and continued 
feeding well on the above-mentioned grass from seven 
to fourteen days, and seemed rather to prefer it to 
Brachypodium sylvaticum, another soft-haired grass, 
which they also ate freely enough for a time ; the 
experiments of trying them with this latter grass 
suggested itself to me from the circumstance of my 
having, a few years ago, gathered some of it, quite by 
chance, which contained a spun-up pupa, that shortly 
afterwards produced this butterfly. 

Their movements were very sluggish, and after eat- 
ing a considerable quantity of food, they very slowly 
began one after another to enclose themselves within 
two, or sometimes three leaves of the grass, joined 
together longitudinally by lacing or spinning, with 
white silk, the edges more or less close to each other, 
and became completely hidden ; the earliest spun itself 
up on the 18th of the month, another on the 20th, and 
the others during the next three days. 

The perfect insects, full-sized specimens, were bred 
on the 15th and 16th of July following. 

The full-grown larva is 10 lines in length, its 
general figure of moderate substance, stoutest in the 
middle of the body, tapering a little from the thoracic 
segments towards the head, which is globular and 
projecting, larger than the second segment, which is 



140 PAMPHILA LINEA. 

remarkably small and short ; it tapers also gradually on 
the last four or five segments when seen from above, 
and when viewed sideways the back then appears 
slightly arched and sloping gradually to the anal flap, 
and this is a trifle flattened and rounded off behind ; 
the belly is flat and the legs are all well beneath it and 
rather short ; the segmental divisions are very delicately 
defined, also most particularly the subdividing trans- 
verse wrinkles, which by no means arrest attention, 
but have to be diligently sought for. 

In colour the head is of rather a deeper green than 
the body, and rough with minute points, the upper lip 
of a pinkish hue, is smoother and deeply channelled, the 
ocelli black ; the body above is of a tender and delicate 
light green ground-colour, without any gloss, and on 
the thoracic segments the skin is besprinkled with 
black points of extreme fineness, so that they do not 
affect the delicate colouring of the green ground ; the 
dorsal stripe is the darkest marking of green and is 
very narrow on the second segment, and thence 
uniformly wider until near the end, where it becomes 
very gradually attenuated on the anal flap. This dorsal 
stripe is of a darker, rather bluish-green, having a 
stoutish line of paler green running through the 
middle, and bordered outside in stronger contrast by a 
stout line of green still paler than the ground ; the 
subdorsal line is of the same pale green, but thinner ; 
below, at a little distance, the trachea shows partly 
through the skin and on it can be discerned the rather 
prominent reddish flesh-coloured spiracles, below these 
again, at a little distance, follows an inflated paler 
stripe of almost creamy-whitish, extending round the 
anal flap, which often hides the belly and legs from view 
when the larva is in repose, but at other times, when 
examined beneath, these are seen to be wholly green 
excepting a transverse patch of white on the front of 
the ventral surface of the eleventh and twelfth 
segments. 

On tearing open the coarse reticulation of white silk 



PAMPHILA LINEA. 141 

which held the leaves together, and formed a lining to 
the oblong puparium an inch and a quarter long, I 
found the pupa itself to be of the length of 8-| lines 
and very similar in form to that of its congener 
Actceon, having the end of -the trunk lying free from 
the abdomen, held in position, head upward, by an 
oblique cincture behind the thorax, and the anal tip 
secured by a fan-like spread of fine hooks at the ex- 
tremity fixed in the silk lining, but the head had the 
frontal tapering beak shorter and more bluntly pointed. 
The colour then was the same light green as that of the 
larva, of which the paler lines could still be faintly 
traced. (W. B., 10, 3, 83 ; B.M.M. XIX, 244.) 



Pamphila sylvanus. 
Plate XVII, fig. 4. 

I have reared this insect from a larva found feeding 
on Luzula pilosa, nearly full grown, on May 1st, 1862. 
It continued to feed for four or five days and then 
spun a silken lining in a cylinder previously formed by 
uniting the edges of a leaf of Luzula, in which it 
changed to a pupa — the perfect insect appearing on 
the 8th of June. 

The larva was very slow in progression ; cylindrical 
above, flattish beneath ; the body pale bluish-green, 
an indistinct dorsal line of darker green, and a paler 
line above the feet, which are small. The head large 
and singularly prominent — of a crimson-brown colour. 
The thoracic segments taper towards the head, giving 
it a strangulated appearance. (W. B., 9, 9, 62 ; ' Weekly 
Entomologist ' I, 45.) 



142 TAMPHILA COMMA. 



Pamphila COMMA. 

(One of the few larv86 of which there is no figure in 

this volume.) 

On the 6th of September, 1880, I received five eggs 
of this species laid in a chip-box and adhering to the 
lid, side, and bottom. These were laid by the female 
butterfly at Geneva, about the 1st of September (the 
butterfly had been captured on the 28th of August by 
the Rev. John Hellins by the Mer de Glace, near 
Chamounix, in Switzerland.) 

The egg is dome-shaped, with a small circular de- 
pression on the summit, the surface apparently smooth, 
colour creamy white, though in three instances ap- 
pearing more or less speckled from some dark scales 
from the parent adhering to them. On the 10th of 
September, without growing darker, their colour 
became of the faintest possible tinge of bluish-green. 

On the 18th of December I sent one egg to Mr. 
Hellins to examine with his microscope, and he re- 
ported that the dark spot in the central depression at 
the top of the egg (which was then visible in all the 
eggs, though not when I first had them) to be com- 
posed of minute black scratches or irregular lines. 

The shell is of the shape of a button or drop, 
broadest at the base, where it is about -^g- of an inch 
wide, top rather flattened, about - 6 ^ of an inch across ; 
the height is about ^ 3 - of an inch ; the shell slightly 
roughened all over, very much like the shell of a hen's 
egg ; colour dead white, with a slight blue tinge. 

Unfortunately none of these eggs hatched, though I 
kept them for more than a year. (W. B., Note-book, 
IV, 46.) 



APPENDIX 



[The following pages contain notes and descriptions 
of larvse prepared this year (1885), by the Rev. John 
Hellins, with the view of supplying some of the gaps 
which occur amongst the descriptions left by the late 
Mr. William Buckler.— H. T. S.] 

These notes consist partly of extracts taken from 
my diaries, partly of descriptions made purposely this 
summer. I am painfully aware how much they fall 
short of the excellence of my late friend's work, and 
only offer them as stop-gaps. — J. H. 



GONEPTURYX 1UIAMNI. 145 

GONEPTERYX RHAMNF; 

Plate I, fig. 2. 

My notes on this species are as follows : — In 1871, 
July 3rd, I found several larvae feeding on Bhamnus 
frangula; on July 13th, three of these had become 
pupa3, whilst some remained quite small. In 1874, 
I bred the imago on July 11th. 

This year (1885) I have had larvae sent to me by 
Mr. W/R. Jeffrey, June 16th; by Mr. Holland, of 
Reading, June 26th ; by Mr. Bignell, July 2nd ; and 
by Mr. Harwood, July 15th. On June 17th, I searched 
some bushes of buckthorn near Exeter, and on one 
stunted bush, growing in a sheltered nook on the side 
of a hill, I found five eggs and four larvae ; and on the 
same bush I continued to find eggs and larvae till the 
end of the month, my last find being dated June 30th. 

How long the egg state lasts I cannot say, not many 
days I imagine ; I had some larvae hatch on June 19th, 
which moulted June 28th, July 4th, and July 6th; were 
full fed July 13th to 15th; became pupae July 16th to 
17th; and the butterflies appeared July 29th to 30th. 
I fancied there was a moult on June 23rd, but on 
testing this point with another larva hatched June 
28th, I found it did not moult till July 6th, so I con- 
clude the larva moults but three times; the skin seemed 
in almost all cases to be eaten. Several of the larvae 
which I found, or received from friends, had been 
stung ; of the survivors the first became an imago July 
26th, the last on August 3rd. 

The duration of the three stages of egg, larva, and 
pupa, must be limited to something less than two 
months; the remainder of the year is passed in the 
perfect state. 

The egg is laid singly, generally on a rib of the 
under side of a leaf of Bhamnus frangula ;* but one 

* I have met with the larva on Bhamnus catharticus. — H. T. S. 
VOL. I. 10 



146 GONEPTBRYX RHAMNI. . 

leaf, which I picked, had two eggs on the under side 
and one on the upper ; the shape of the egg is flask- 
like, cylindrical, set on end, about 1*3 mm. high, *4 mm. 
in diameter at the base, '5 mm. at the widest, narrow- 
ing to *15 mm. at the top ; the shell is very delicate 
and glistening, with twelve longitudinal ribs or flutings, 
and fine intermediate parallel lines ; colour silvery green 
at first, turning at last to yellow. The larva makes its 
escape from the egg by a large irregular hole in its 
side, leaving the neck and top perfect, and does not 
eat the empty shell. 

The newly-hatched larva is nearly 2 mm. long, the 
head being the widest segment, and the body tapering 
backwards to the tail ; the skin shining, in colour dull 
yellowish, sparsely sprinkled with tiny black dots, but 
there is a dorsal line of the ground colour left clear of 
these dots ; the usual trapezoidal and lateral warts are 
blackish dots, but distinguishable by having a clear 
space round each ; and each bears a short pellucid 
knobbed bristle. In five days' time the larva is 4^ mm. 
long, the body has become green, but the head has a 
yellowish-brown tinge, the whole surface of the back 
set with tiny black dots; but the trapezoidal and lateral 
warts are larger black dots surrounded by clear spaces. 
After the moult on the eighth or ninth day the length 
is 8 mm., the head is green set with black dots, the 
rest of the description much as before. After the next 
moult the length is 15 or 16 mm., the colour becomes 
a fuller green, the white spiracular line appears, the 
trapezoidal s still have clear surrounding spaces, there 
are more black dots, and some more bristles. The 
length just after the last moult is 20 mm. ; the full- 
grown larva is 34 mm. long, in shape having the back 
rounded but the ventral surface more flattened, the 
body stoutest from the third to sixth segments, the 
second tapering rapidly to the head, which is rounded, 
the hinder segments taper gradually, the thirteenth 
rapidly, the anal flap ends squarely ; the six subdividing 
rings of each segment well defined, the subspiracular 



GONEPTERYX EHAMNI. 147 

lateral ridge rather sharply edged; the second and 
third pairs of true legs are set upon stout bases, the 
ventral prolegs also powerful ; the colour of the back 
is a uniform dull glaucous green, melting at the 
spiracles into a greyish-white broad stripe, which 
reaches to the subspiracular ridge and is there pure 
white, except on segments 2 to 4 where it has a 
yellow tinge; the spiracles inconspicuous, being yel- 
lowish-white ; the belly of a more tender green than 
the back, but becoming glaucous down the middle ; 
the head and all the back finely set with tiny black 
dots of uniform size, each emitting a short pale bristle ; 
on the pale stripe the dots are whitish, below this the 
dots are dark, but not so black or so numerous as 
on the back. As the larva matures the trapezoidals 
become indistinguishable, and the pulsating dorsal 
vessel becomes visible as a faintly darker line. 

For pupation the larva fixes itself head upwards, 
with a belt of silk round the body, and then bends the 
body in a curve outwards ; but I never saw the actual 
change. 

The pupa, the difficulties of whose description Albin 
got over by calling it " odd-shaped," is about 25 mm. 
in extreme length, and 9 mm. in width across the wing- 
cases ; the general outline is pointed at either end, the 
back of the thorax humped in a short curve, the abdo- 
men rising again a little from the waist, and con- 
tinuing nearly straight to its tip, with a very slight 
keel along the centre; the shoulders angulated, a 
lateral ridge thence to the anal tip; the wing-cases are 
produced in front to a narrow edge until quite half 
their depth projects beyond the line of the belly, from 
this projection the abdomen curves gently to its tip, 
which is a bluntly-triangular spike, flattened, the 
ventral side covered with curved spines (none on the 
back); the tongue-case forms the edge of the projecting 
wing-cases, but stops some little distance before reach- 
ing the abdomen. The colour of the pupa generally is 
a bluish-green, the wing-cases more grass-green, the 



148 GONEPTEEYX RHAMNI. 

sharp point at the head yellow, tipped with purplish - 
brown; a purplish -brown spot on the shoulder; a 
faintly deeper green line down the back ; a subdorsal 
row of faint dusky spots ; the lateral ridge yellowish, 
edged above with deeper green; the wing-cases and 
their nervures softly marked with freckles ; a purplish 
line down the belly. As the imago matures the 
antenna-cases show red, and the wings and body 
become yellowish. (J. H., 19, 9, 85.) 



PlERIS BBASSICjE. 

Plate II, fig. 2. 

The sight of the caterpillars of this species feeding 
on cabbages, and their unpleasant odour when plucked 
off and crushed under foot, are among my very earliest 
recollections; and I suppose the disgust which they 
inspired has ever since kept me from caring to know 
much about them. And so, with the solitary exception 
of a memorandum about a variety of the pupa, I have 
no notes of an earlier date than the past summer (1885), 
when I did what I could to atone for past neglect, and 
braved the unpleasant smell of cabbages for weeks 
continuously. I could get no butterflies of the first 
flight, nor eggs from them ; but Mr. Bignell, at Ply- 
mouth, kindly hunted for larvse, and sent me two 
batches of youngsters, on July 8th and 14th; most 
of these were already stung, and I got from them only 
two pupae, luckily varieties, and I bred the butterflies 
on August 13th and 16th, being of course examples 
of the second flight. Females of this second flight 
were captured by Mr. Jeffrey and myself, and laid eggs 
on August 12th and 16th; the larvse hatched August 
18th and 22nd, were full fed about September 10th, 
and the last had become a pupa by September 15th. 
Meanwhile Mr. Bignell found eggs and sent them to 
me on September 1st, and again on September 29th, 



PIERIS BRASSI02B. 149 

and I found eggs in my garden on September 15th; 
these later dates might seem to indicate a third flight 
of butterflies, and a third laying ; however, I have not 
bred a single imago in confinement from the pupae 
of the second brood, so I must attribute the late ovi- 
position to butterflies which had by some means been 
delayed in their development. The eggs of September 
1st produced the larvae next day, and these had turned 
to pupae by October 10th ; the eggs found by me on 
September 15th produced larvae September 25th and 
26th, many of these were killed by frost and rain, and 
the survivors are now, November 3rd, feeding out-of- 
doors on Tropoeolum majus, but are not more than 12 
mm. long, so their chance of becoming pupae seems 
small; the larvae from the eggs of September 29th 
were hatched on October 10th, but I did not keep 
them. One brood, that sent me by Mr. Jeffrey, I 
watched carefully, and noted the date of each change ; 
eggs laid August 12th, larvae hatched August 18th; 
first moult, larvae 4 mm. long, August 22nd ; second 
moult, larvae 8 mm., August 26th; third moult, larvae 
12 mm., August 31st; fourth moult, larvae 20 mm., 
September 3rd; all had become pupae by September 
12th, thus completing this portion of their changes 
during the warmer weather, in the space of a month : 
the cast skins were never eaten. I fed my larvae on 
cabbage and horse-radish leaves, and noticed that 
they certainly preferred the former. I found the eggs 
laid on Tropoeolum majus, and have seen the larvae on 
that plant frequently, but in their cage they would not 
eat its leaves if they could get cabbage. Mr. W. H. B. 
Fletcher tells me he has seen larvae on turnip leaves, 
and Mr. W. H. Harwood mentions in addition charlock 
and mignonette. Though of course feeding and living 
openly, the larvae do a good deal of spinning for their 
foothold; they are quite social in their habits, and 
feed in company, and rest in rows side by side most 
fraternally. 

To speak first of the egg laying, the eggs are laid 



150 PIEEIS BRASSIOjE. 

on end in batches, but without linear arrangement, on 
either surface of the leaf ; the females in confinement 
deposited little groups of six, or eight, or a dozen; but 
those we found at large were in much larger companies. 
I found two batches of fifty or sixty each, and Mr. 
Bignell sent me at one time sixty-five, and at another 
time more than one hundred all grouped together ; the 
egg is flask-shaped or skittle-shaped, standing on end, 
rather more than 1 mm. in height, and more than -J- 
mm. in diameter below, and about ^ mm. across the top, 
with from 15 to 17 longitudinal ribs, and delicate even 
transverse reticulation ; in colour dull yellow. Shortly 
before the larva is hatched the egg shows three coloured, 
the narrow neck and top being white and empty, then 
just at the shoulder a black spot, being the head of the 
larva, and all below yellow, the colour of the body of the ' 
larva. The young larva eats the empty eggshell; it is 
over 2 mm. in length, with large black head, the body 
pale greenish-drab, the usual warts large and black, the 
front pair of trapezoidals being largest, each carrying 
a long hair ; on the second segment a pair of large 
black square spots separated by a pale line, the back 
for the width of the space between the front trape- 
zoidals pale with a dusky thread through the middle, 
a large black plate on thirteenth segment. As the larva 
grows, before the first moult, some tiny black specks 
begin to show; when through the first moult, the 
length being 4 mm., the body is yellowish-green, the 
dorsal line distinctly yellower, the warts grown larger 
and blacker than before, the hairs still long and stiff ; 
when through the second moult, 8 mm. long, the colour 
yellow with a green tinge on the front segments, black 
head and warts as before ; after the third moult, 12 
mm. long, the middle of the back and lower part of the 
sides more yellow, the subdorsal region greyish-green, 
head and spots black ; after the fourth moult, 20 mm. 
long,thehea'd becomes pale, and this seems the great dis- 
tinction of the final skin. The full grown larva is about 
42 mm. in length, rather slender, cylindrical, tapering 



TIGRIS BRASSI02E. 151 

slightly from about the middle towards the head and 
tail, the head rounded, narrower than the second 
segment, the skin at last shining, the usual warts 
sharply prominent, the whole body sparsely set with 
short hairs ; the colour of the back is a light greyish 
or bluish green (the blue tint predominating in some 
examples and the yellow in others), the dorsal line deep 
rich yellow, the spiracular region paler and duller 
yellow, the belly more greenish ; the lobes of the head 
bluish-grey, finely powdered with small black dots 
bearing short light hairs, and broadly margined all 
along their front edges with black ; the space between 
these black borders pale yellow, the upper lip blue-grey, 
the mouth black ; the usual warts black and shining, 
surrounded by large dull black spots, the largest of 
which is that which surrounds the lateral wart, the 
rest of the back is set with black spots of two or three 
magnitudes, arranged on the subdivisions of the seg- 
ments. All the legs yellowish with black marks ; the 
black shining plate on the second segment divided 
by the dorsal line, which also enters the black plate on 
the thirteenth segment for half its length ; below the 
spiracles only small and pale black spots occur ; the 
spiracles indistinct, pale with black rings. 

The larva for pupation fixes itself head upwards or 
horizontally on a flooring of silk, with a belt round the 
middle, and a holdfast for the anal legs. The pupa is 
26 mm. long, well proportioned and stout, somewhat 
angulated, the head with central spike or horn, the 
back keeled throughout, the keel rising very high on 
the thorax in two steps to a bluntish point, and then 
falling in the same way to the waist ; the abdomen not 
so prominently keeled, at the end the keel bifurcates 
forming the two sides of the spike ; the shoulders 
angulated, from these a subdorsal ridge angulated 
along the wing-cases with two prominences, the 
second being the higher. There is a variety in which 
this second prominence becomes quite a spike. (Dr. 
Jordan sent me a specimen in 1874, and the two 



152 PIERIS BRASSIGE. 

pupse I obtained this summer from Plymouth, had this 
spike.) The outline of the belly a gentle curve from 
the head to the end of the wing-cases, where the tongue- 
case projects free for 1 mm. (but not so prominently 
as in the engraving, Plate II, fig. 2a; Mr. Buckler seems 
to have been the first to notice this projection, no pre- 
viously published figure shows it) ; thence the abdo- 
men goes in a second and gentler curve to the tail ; 
the anal spike flat, almost square, being made up of 
the two outside ridges with a triangular piece between, 
and set on the ventral surface with many short spines 
curved at the tip and then spreading into broad edged 
hooks. There are two or three varieties of colour, the 
most common is very pale greenish-white ; the head 
spike blue at the base and yellow at the tip ; dorsal 
keel, shoulders, and spiracles yellow ; the whole skin 
sparingly freckled with tiny black dots ; the dorsal 
and subdorsal ridges marked with larger black spots, 
and several of intermediate size set in patterns on the 
sides ; the tip of proboscis blackish. Another variety 
is bluish-green all over, with yellow ridges and spiracles, 
with the black spots much smaller and fewer in number. 
Another variety is mottled with the green and white 
tints. These varieties were developed side by side in 
the same cage. (J. H., 3, 11, 85.) 



PlEEIS RAPM. 

Plate II, fig. 3. 

(See Mr. Buckler's brief notice at p. 19.) 

This was the first species I looked out for this year, 
in order to obtain eggs, but the early flight was so 
scanty in its numbers that I failed to catch an egg- 
laying female; however, one must have visited my 
garden, for after a good deal of searching I found five 
larvao (and no more) during the first week in July • 



PI KRIS RAPiE. 153 

these became pupae between July 15th and 23rd, and 
the butterflies were bred between the 21st and 27th ; at 
this last date there came plenty of females of the second 
flight, and I found eggs from time to time up to Sep- 
tember 8th ; and from the earliest of these eggs, found 
at the end of July, I reared the larvae and bred several 
butterflies at the end of September and through October, 
thus obtaining a partial third flight ; the greater part 
of my pupae, however, remain over for next spring. 
During the warm weather the larva seems to be hatched 
about six days after the egg is laid ; the moults are 
not easy to detect because the change of colour is 
slight and the larva eats the cast skin, but I believe 
there are four moults at intervals of about four or five 
days each, and the pupa is developed in five or six days' 
time from the fourth moult. I have found the eggs on 
Tropoeolum majus and canariense, cabbage, charlock, 
mignonette, and horse-radish ; to these plants Mr. 
Harwood adds hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale) 
and watercress. 

The egg is laid singly (sometimes a leaf in a favourite 
corner will get three or four eggs left on it, but each 
deposited separately), standing on end, and is flask- 
shaped or skittle-shaped, being just 1 mm. in height, 
rather more than ^ mm. wide and about -g- mm. across 
the top ; with eleven, twelve, or thirteen longitudinal 
ribs, coming up evenly and neatly to the apex (one of 
the distinctions between this species and napi), with 
delicate even transverse reticulation. The colour at 
first is very pale greenish-yellow, afterwards becoming 
more yellow, some even orange-yellow. The young 
larva eats the empty shell, and in several cases I 
found larva?, which had hatched in my pill boxes, 
after eating their own eggshells attacking and 
devouring their neighbours who were yet unhatched ; 
of course this was done in the absence of proper food, 
and would hardly occur in nature, but I do not remember 
to have seen such a thing among all the hundreds of 
other species I have reared from the egg t I have seen 



154 PIERIS KAP2E. 

other young larvse eat one another, but not attack their 
brothers yet in the egg ; however, after proper food 
had been supplied I noticed no more cannibalism with 
ra/pce. The newly hatched larva is not quite 2 mm. in 
length, slender, in colour yellow all over, head and all, 
the usual dots looking like small raised warts and each 
bearing a longish pale bristle ; as it feeds it becomes 
greenish and tiny black specks begin to show. When 
the larva is 4 mm. long the head is brownish, the body 
shining green, the usual warts are prominent and 
white, but the bristles are black and look knobbed ; 
when the length of 7 mm. has been attained the whole 
larva is green, the warts as before white, each set with 
a stiff black bristle, the back powdered with black 
dots of two sizes, and with fine downy pale hairs, the 
dorsal line is distinct by being free from dots, but there 
is no difference of colour, and as yet there is no spirac- 
ular line ; when the larva is 11 mm. long, after I 
believe the third moult, the yellow dorsal line is dis- 
tinct, but there is no yellow yet in the spiracular line, 
the warts and dots as before ; when the larva is through 
the next (and last) moult and is 15 mm. long, the 
yellow spots appear in the spiracular line, and the 
black dots multiply. The full grown larva is 28 or 29 
mm. long, cylindrical, tapering slightly from the middle 
towards either end, the general colour a dull green, a 
thin yellow dorsal line, a faint yellow spiracular line, 
which carries a row of yellow spots, namely, one apiece 
on segments 3 and 4 ; from 5 to 12 there are two spots 
on each segment, namely, one immediately in front of 
the spiracle and touching it and the other some little 
distance behind ; the spiracles are pale in black rings ; 
there is no yellow spot on segment 13. The trape- 
zoidal and lateral warts are small but somewhat promi- 
nent, and are white in colour but with dark bristles ; 
the whole skin set with small black dots down to the 
legs, more thickly on the back, and these dots emit fine 
hairs ; the legs are whitish-green ; the belly glistening 
whitish-green. As the larva matures there becomes 



PIERIS RAVM. 155 



apparent on the back of the ninth segment a pale 
square spot, apparently caused by an internal organ 
showing through, but the dorsal line is not interrupted 
by it. 

The larva fixes itself head upwards, or horizontally, 
by the anal legs, and a belt round the body, for pupa- 
tion. The pupa is about 20 mm. long, angulated, the 
head with a sharpish central horn, the back keeled to 
the tail, the keel rising up quickly on the thorax to a 
blunt point, then falling to the level of the abdomen, 
which goes off in a long curve to the tail ; the 
shoulders slightly angulated ; a subdorsal ridge begins 
with two points (the second being highest), below the 
waist, and continues in a slight curve to the tail; the 
belly nearly straight ; the anal spike short, flattened, 
almost square, the ventral side of the tip set with 
curled spines. The colour seems very varied, but as all 
the varieties occurred side by side on the cover of the 
tin box in which my larvge were reared, I could not 
account for their difference ; the commonest variety I 
have is dusky drab, finely powdered over the back with 
black, the dorsal and subdorsal ridges inclining to 
yellowish, and dotted with black, the horn on the head 
lined with black ; the wing nervures drab, with 
blackish spaces between; the tongue-case (the tip of 
which projects free for a short distance) and antenna- 
cases blackish; a few are darker than this, looking 
quite smoky, and the pale lines not so clear ; on the 
other hand, some are much lighter, of a pale drab, 
scarcely with the faintest freckling of black, and a few 
black spots along the ridges ; and some again having 
either a rosy pink, or else a dull green tinge suffused 
all over them. (J. H., 5, 11, 85.) 



156 PIERIS EAPI. 



PlEEIS NAPI. 

Plate II, fig. 4. 
(See Mr. Buckler's brief notice at p. 20.) 

I saw a few butterflies on the wing in May and 
June of this year, but could not capture a female ; in 
the beginning of August I was in a locality where the 
second flight was out in numbers, and on the 10th I 
captured two females, which on the 12th began to lay, 
and in a short time deposited a large number of eggs. 
The larvae were hatched in six days' time, on the 18th ; 
in four days passed their first moult, August 22nd ; four 
days afterwards came the second moult, August 26th ; 
and in three days more the third moult, August 29th ; 
and in four days more the last moult, September 2nd. 
The first pupa was developed September 8th, and the 
last September 14th; none of them have so far dis- 
closed the imago, and no doubt are lying over for the 
first flight in next year. Mr. C. Gr. Barrett kindly 
sent me some eggs from Belfast August 25th, and the 
larvae appeared next day. I saw the butterfly on the 
wing up to September 9th. 

1 have never seen the larva at large, but I fed those 
I have reared this season on horse-radish, which they 
seemed to like very well, eating the leaves and the 
stout leafstalks voraciously. Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher 
tells me he has found it on Nasturtium officinale, and 
abundantly on a small cress growing in ditches in the 
New Forest, which he took to be Barbarea vulgaris ; 
Mr. W. H. Harwood believes he has found it on Calrile 
maritima. 

The egg is laid singly, on end, and is flask-shaped, 
being 1J mm. in height, nearly \ mm. wide, and about 
-g- mm. across the top, with (generally) fourteen longi- 
tudinal ribs not meeting very neatly, and with regular 
delicate transverse reticulation ; colour at first pale 
green, afterwards becoming more pale and silvery; 
thus, although much like the egg of rajpce, it is longer, 



PIURIS NAPI. 157 

not so neat at the apex, and always greener in colour. 
The young larvse eat their empty eggshells, but I saw 
no attempt to eat other eggs. The newly-hatched 
larva is all but 2 mm. long, with the head large, and 
the body stoutest in front, the skin shining, the colour 
(paler than in rapce) being pale yellowish- white, head 
and all, the internal vessels showing through of a 
darker yellowish-drab tint; all the warts prominent, 
though not so distinct as in rajoce, each with a long 
very pale hair; after the larva begins to feed the 
colour soon becomes a full green. After the first 
moult, when the larva is 3-J- mm. long, the colour is 
pale yellowish-green, with the front part of the body 
much deeper in tint, the warts whitish, the hairs from 
them darker than before, and the small dark dots with 
short hairs appear. The cast skin is eaten. After the 
second moult the length is 6 mm., the head shining, 
clear yellowish-green, the body glaucous green, espe- 
cially in front; the warts white, a few of the small 
dots black. After the third moult the length is 10 
mm., the colours as before, but many more small black 
dots have come ; there is a dorsal line formed simply 
by the absence of these black dots ; there is a dusky 
green spiracular line, on the lower edge of which is 
now a row of round yellow spots, each enclosing the 
black spiracle. After the fourth moult the length is 
16 mm., and the last skin appears ; the full-grown 
larva is about 26 mm. in length, cylindrical, the head 
rounded, narrower than segment 2, the body stoutest 
at segment 7, tapering thence slightly forwards, and 
more rapidly towards the tail ; the usual warts sharply 
prominent, and the whole skin including the head set 
with sharp points, all furnished with short hairs ; the 
colour a full green, head rather paler, the dorsal line 
shows rather deeper green, the dorsal and ventral 
colours are sharply separated by the yellowish green 
indistinct spiracular line, on which come the black 
spiracles, each in a round yellow spot ; the belly is of 
a paler greyer green, all the legs are green; on the 



158 PIEFJS NAPI. 

back of the ninth segment is a pale square spot, caused 
by an internal organ showing through ; the trape- 
zoidal and lateral warts are whitish, but all the other 
points and dots are black of three or four sizes, 
arranged on the subdivisions of the segments ; but 
there are no black spots below the spiracular line ; all 
the little raised points below that are white. 

This larva is much like that of rajpce, but can be 
known from it by its lighter green, by the absence of 
a yellow dorsal line, by the single yellow spot in each 
segment enclosing the spiracle, and by the absence of 
black dots below the spiracular line. 

The pupa is fastened by the anal hooks, and a belt 
of silk round the body ; it is about 20 mm. in length, 
angulated, the head with a single horn, the back keeled 
throughout, the keel rising quickly to a blunt point on 
the thorax, then falling to the level of the abdomen 
and continued but not prominently to the anal spike, 
where it bifurcates to form its sides; the wing-cases 
a little angulated, from below the waist a subdorsal 
ridge, which begins with two raised points, and goes 
on to the tail ; the outline of the belly much straighter, 
the tip of the tongue-case just standing free, the eyes 
somewhat prominent; anal spike flat, nearly square, 
the under side of the tip set with curved and clubbed 
spines. In colour there are two chief varieties, the one 
of a light tender green, the other of a very pale pink 
buff; some of the green ones are almost without 
markings, except that the prominent parts — the horn, 
dorsal and subdorsal ridges — are dull yellow, and the 
wing-cases tinted with yellowish ; but the greater pro- 
portion of the green ones have the prominent parts 
dull yellow, and a number of spots purple brown vary- 
ing in depth of tint ; these are placed on the sides of 
the horn, on the thoracic eminence, three or four large 
ones on the upper edge of the wing-cases, and a row 
of small ones at the segmental divisions on the dorsal 
and subdorsal ridges of the abdomen. There is nearly 
the same difference between lightly and darkly-spotted 



PIERIS NAPI. 159 

examples of the buff variety, but this variety has the 
largest and darkest development of these purple-brown 
spots, and has the wing nervures marked out also. 
(J. H., 6, 11, 85.) 



Anthocharis cardamines. 
Plate III, fig. 2. 

In 1864, July 5th, I had a larva sent to me on 
Hesperis matronalis, the imago from which appeared 
8th May, 1865. On 15th July, 1885, Mr. W. H. 
Harwood kindly sent me two larvse just come to full 
growth, and gave me the information that he is 
accustomed to find the larva principally on Sinapis 
arvensis, which he considers its chief food, also on 
Gardamine pratensis, Sisymbrium officinale, Alliaria 
officinalis, and seeds of garden rocket.* My two larvae 
became pupse on July 18th and 19th, and I had the 
pleasure of seeing the change in each case ; the time 
from the opening of the slit in the back of the larva 
skin to the clearance of the anal tip was about seven 
minutes. 

The full-grown larva is about 27 mm. in length, 
rather slight in figure, nearly cylindrical but with a 
subspiracular ridge, stoutest at the sixth segment, 
thence tapering each way, the head rounded, about as 
wide as the second segment, which is narrower than 
the third, anal flap ending bluntly; the larva looks 
wrinkled, each segment having six subdividing rings, 
with apparently some complication at the folds ; the 
skin is thickly set with fine raised dots of two sizes, 
bearing fine pubescence ; the colour is a uniform dull 
glaucous green on the back, passing through grey 
green into the pure white spiracular stripe ; the belly is 
of a more tender green than the back ; the dots on the 
back are black placed on greyish little warts ; on the 

* I have found the larva on Turritis glabra and on the flower-stems 
of horse-radish. — H. T. S. 



160 ANTHOCHARIS OARDAM1NES. 

belly they are not so numerous ; the spiracles are 
inconspicuous being whitish, but not so white as the 
stripe on which they are placed. 

The larva fastens itself for pupation by the anal legs, 
and with a belt of silk, and soon assumes an arched 
posture, and becomes a pupa in less than two days ; 
the beaked head-piece when first disclosed hangs 
down limp, like the tassel of a man's old fashioned 
night-cap, and the wing-cases project at first but little ; 
in a short time, however, the form fully develops, and 
the pupa skin hardens. The pupa is 20 mm. long, very 
slender, and very attenuated at either end ; the general 
outline of the back from end to end is concavely arched, 
and it is much flattened, though the thorax swells out 
just a little ; the head ends in a long beak or horn ; 
the tail has no spike, but the tip is set with rounded 
knobs and small bristles (under the microscope 
reminding one of the appearance of a raspberry) ; on 
the ventral side the wing-cases swell out to a somewhat 
acute point just at the middle of the body; along the 
spiracular region is a ridge dividing the dorsal and 
ventral surfaces ; the colour at first is a dull deep 
green. One of my pupae in about ten days became pale 
grey tinged with pink, darker on the back with a pale 
dove-grey middle line and a broad stripe of dove-grey 
on each side, the edge of the lateral ridge pinkish- 
white, the nervures of the wings paler than the ground ; 
the other pupa has retained its green colour to the 
date of my present writing, and has the anal tip pink. 
(J. H., 22, 9, 85.) 



Arge Galathea. 

Plate III, fig. 4. 

In 1861 I received eggs of this species from Dr. 
Knaggs, July 27th, and the larvse were hatched August 
18th, but I have no further notes of their progress. 
In 1863 I again had eggs, and on March 31st, 1864, 



ARGE GALATHEA. 161 

I noted that I had a larva 6 mm. long, and feeding 
after hibernation ; by May 14th this larva was more 
than 12 mm. in length; it was full fed before the 
middle of June, and the imago was bred July 22nd. 
In the month of May, 1866, 1 had a quantity of various 
larvae sent to me from Torquay for naming, and among 
them I found several of this species. During July, 
1876, I captured some of the butterflies, and obtained 
eggs ; and the larvae were hatched on July 31st. 

On June 20th, 1885, Mr. Gr. 0. Bignell kindly sent me 
two larvae, which had been lately taken in the New 
Forest; they became full fed in two or three days, and 
hid themselves in moss for pupation on June 25th and 
27th. On July 24th I bred one imago ; the other died 
in the pupa, probably having been injured by me when 
examining it for description. On August 13th Mr. 
W. E. Jeffrey sent me some eggs, and the larvae were 
hatched on August 29th, and are now apparently 
growing very slowly. From my own observation, and 
the information given me by my friends, I conclude 
that the parent butterfly simply drops her eggs in 
rough grassy spots, without attaching them to any 
object; the young larva eats up its eggshell almost 
entirely, and thenceforward feeds on grasses; it seems 
sluggish in its movements. I do not know on what 
kinds of grass it has been taken, but I find it will eat 
any of the common grasses from my garden ; and I 
have noted Dactylis glomerata in particular. It hiber- 
nates when very small, becomes full fed in June, and 
changes to a pupa without suspending itself in any 
way, or making a cocoon ; I think it would hide itself, 
as my examples did ; I found they had got among the 
thick moss, with which I had furnished the bottom of 
their cage, and apparently made little hollows for 
themselves by turning round. Mr. Buckler's figure 
(Plate III, fig. 4 d) shows the cast larva skin at the 
tail of the pupa, but its attitude must not be taken as 
indicating suspension. 

The egg is large and plump, stumpy ovate in outline, 
vol. i. 11 



162 AEGB GALATHEA. 

being 1 mm. in height, and nearly 1 mm. in its widest 
diameter, but about § mm. across the top, and the 
same at the base which is cupped. The shell looks like 
dull bone- white china, and is covered all over with 
very shallow rhomboidal network, with very tiny knobs 
at the knots, and with a central patch of finer meshes 
on the top. The young larva is about 2\ mm. long, 
squat looking, with large head, and body tapering 
thence to tail; the skin not shining, the usual warts 
round and prominent, each bearing a longish stiff 
curved bristle ; the head granulated and set with some 
hairs rising from round warts ; colour a whitish buff, 
with yellowish-brown dorsal, and rather broader sub- 
dorsal, lines ; the warts whitish, the head brownish 
with whitish warts. At the length of 6 mm. the larva 
has not changed its appearance much. The full-grown 
larva is about 30 mm. in length, stout in figure, cylin- 
drical, tapering from the fifth segment both to the 
head and to the tail; the head is proportionally small, 
almost globular; the anal flap ending bluntly, and 
furnished with two short spines pointing backwards ; 
the skin dull, finely set all over (head included) with 
short hairs ; all the legs are small and short, and are 
placed well together. In colour this species is variable, 
the variety of which I have seen most examples has the 
ground colour buff, and the lines more or less brown ; 
but I can now describe in full only the variety I have 
seen this summer, with the ground colour of very pale 
yellowish-green, the dorsal line very dark green but 
beginning paler on segments 2 to 4; in the sub- 
dorsal region comes a stripe of paler yellower tint 
than the ground, edged with darker green, faintly 
above, but more strongly below, these edgings most 
distinct about the middle of the body; the spiracles 
small, round, black ; there is a subspiracular line paler 
than the ground but not distinct; the head pale pinkish- 
brown, anal spikes pink; belly much the same colour 
as the back ; the true legs faintly brownish, the ventral 
prolegs green ; the pubescence pale. 



AEGE GALATHEA. 163 

The pupa is very stout and plump, 15 mm. long and 
7 mm. at the widest, just where the wing-cases end; 
the head-piece slopes from the shoulders but ends 
squarely, the back of the thorax swells up roundly, 
falling in a little at the waist, whence the abdomen 
swells out again in a round curve to the tail, the seg- 
ments being very slightly marked ; the ventral outline 
is gently curved; the wing-cases rounded; the abdomen 
ends in a square piece, on which is placed a short blunt 
spike set at the end with two little groups of short 
straight spines. The general colour is pale putty- white; 
the wing-cases and antenna-cases freckled with pale 
brown, the abdomen with a more yellowish tinge, the 
segmental rings marked with deeper yellow, and there 
is a broadish yellow stripe down the middle; the 
spiracles in one specimen were large, and ringed with 
brown ; the pair of spiracles at the shoulders large and 
dark brown in colour, thus being conspicuous on the 
pale ground; the anal spike chestnut-brown. (J. H., 
25, 9, 85.) 



LASIOMMATA iEGERIA. 

Plate IV, fig. 1 (see ante, p. 27). 

Mr. Buckler having spoken of the larva after hiberna- 
tion, I may give dates for the summer brood : June 
26th, 1885, I captured a female, which laid a good 
many eggs the same day; the larvse were hatched 
July 5th, full fed about July 27th, and had all become 
pupse by August 2nd, and the butterflies were bred 
between August 11th and 17th. I saw examples of 
this second flight at large up to September 24th. 

The egg is laid on its end upon a blade of grass, in 
form it is dumpy, not globular, but with upright sides 
and round top, just 1 mm. high, and slightly less than 
1 mm. wide ; it has no ribs, the shell is very glossy, 
covered all over with fine irregular raised network, 



164 LASIOMMATA ^GERIA. 

stoutest on the top ; the colour at first pale whitish- 
green, in about a week a dingy cloudiness comes in the 
colour, and just at last at the top of the egg the black 
head of the larva shows through. The young larva 
eats up its empty eggshell, and is just 2 mm. long, 
with large, brilliant, jet black head, the body all over 
very pale greenish-white, the usual dots darker and 
shining, with pale long curved hairs ; some black 
bristles on the head. The first moult came in five days, 
when the larva was 5 mm. long and the head became 
green, the general colour pale green, a deeper green 
dorsal and a whitish subdorsal line appeared, and the 
bristles increased in number, and the pink anal points 
were developed. The second moult came in five days 
from the first, when the larva was 7 or 8 mm. long ; 
the green colouring became more vivid, and the hairs 
more numerous. The third moult came in another 
five days time, when the larva was 13 mm. long, and 
this was apparently the last; the full fed larva was 
23 mm. long. 

The pupa was formed about six days after the last 
moult ; the pupa is about 12 mm. long, stout and 
squat in figure, the head notched at an obtuse angle, 
the back of the thorax swelling up in a steep curve, 
aud falling in gradually at the waist, the abdomen 
swelling in a bold curve to the tail ; the under side of 
the thorax nearly straight, the abdomen curved; the 
anal spike short and stout, though somewhat flattened, 
the ventral side of the tip crowded with curved spines, 
which hold most tenaciously to the silken pad spun by 
the larva. The colour varies, some being pale green 
tinged with whitish yellow, the wings outlined in 
brown ; on the abdomen a short subdorsal row of three 
small whitish-yellow spots ; others had the ground 
colour green, but covered all over with very fine 
smoky freckles. (J. EL, 9, 11, 85.) 



LASIOMMATA MEGJERA. 165 



LASIOMMATA MEGiERA. 

Plate IV, fig. 2. 

On July 9th, 1864, I received a larva from Mr. 
Buckler, who must have been at that time rearing the 
species ; the imago emerged July 23rd. In May, 1874, 
I obtained ova, and took a description on the 25th ; 
the larvse began to hatch on June 3rd and moulted for 
the first time on June 10th, by June 24th they were 
about 8 mm. long, and I bred the butterflies July 20th, 
and following days ; these had gone through all their 
stages in about two months. About the end of March, 
1881,1 captured two larvae on grass; about the middle 
of April these became pupse, and . the butterflies ap- 
peared May 13th and 21st; these had come from eggs 
laid in the previous July or August, and had hibernated 
as larvse. The dates given above mark the times of 
the two broods. 

The egg is deposited singly on grass blades ; in 
shape it is dumpy conical, somewhat truncated, with 
the top rather rounded ; the shell is glistening, covered 
with rows of shallow reticulation on the sides and all 
over the top, with a central spot of very small reticu- 
lation ; colour at first pale green, then whitish, at last 
dull greenish- white, with some dark purplish spots on 
the top. 

The newly hatched larva has the head globular and 
large, half as wide again as the second segment, with 
the body tapering from it; all the usual dots promi- 
nent, and each, carrying a long curved bristle ; colour 
greyish, with a brownish dorsal line which widens in 
the middle of each segment, and contracts at the folds, 
two finer lateral lines ; the head shining pale olive with 
little black warts carrying black bristles, the dots on 
the back ringed with brownish. At the first moult the 
colour is changed ; it becomes dull green all over, the 
head bright green, the dorsal line of a green rather 
deeper than the ground, but edged with paler lines ; 



166 HIPPARCHIA JANIRA. 

in the subdorsal region comes a darker thread, followed 
below — first by a paler line, then a dark one again, and 
then another pale one; the spiracular line is more 
yellowish-green. The full-grown larva is green, 
with darker dorsal line, and paler subdorsal and 
spiracular lines. 

The pupa is suspended by the tail, and has two 
varieties of coloration, green and a very dark brown. 
It has a short, stout, flattened anal spike, the tip of 
which is thickly set with pale, curled spines ; leading 
up to it on the ventral side is a sort of scutcheon, but 
not prominent, bearing on its higher edge two tiny 
knobs ; the tip of the proboscis, though lying close to 
the abdomen, is really free from it for about the length 
of l\ mm. (J. H., 12, 10, 85.) 



HlPPARCHIA JANIRA. 

Plate V, fig. 1 . 

I have bred this species, but have nothing that I 
can say for certain about it, except that it hibernates 
in the larval stage ; I have several times taken the 
larvae feeding upon grasses in the spring. The full- 
grown larva is full green, with darker dorsal line, and 
the two anal points pink. 

For pupation the larva suspends itself by the tail ; 
at the change the shrivelled skin remains enveloping 
the tail of the pupa, and supporting it. The pupa is 
stout, the head with two little horns ; the tail ends in 
a short, stout curved spike, on the tip of which are a 
few straight feeble bristles, quite unfit for suspending 
it; on the ventral surface close to this spike is a 
scutcheon of a somewhat rounded form, with a central 
cicatrice, and on the front edge two little projecting 
knobs, which with the spike no doubt keep a hold on 
the cast larva skin. The colour is green, with some 
brown spots and lines. Boisduval has figured the 



HIPPARCHIA JANtRA. 167 

pupa suspended by the naked anal spike, but I do not 
think this can be correct. 

Mr. G. F. Mathew informs me that he has watched 
the female of this species dropping her eggs at random, 
as she fluttered above some coarse grass. (J. H., 7, 
11,85.) 



HlPPARCHIA TlTHONUS. 

Plate Y, fig. 2. 

On 21st August, 1873, I captured some butterflies, 
which at once laid eggs ; the larvse hatched September 
15th ; they moulted about the middle of October. On 
January 21st, 1874, they were about 3^ mm. in 
length, on March 16th about 6 mm. ; by April 25th 
they had grown to 12 mm. ; June 4th, some measured 
19 mm., and were full grown ; the first imago was bred 
August 18th. In 1885, June 20th, Mr. Bignell sent 
me a larva taken with some Galathea larvae in the New 
Forest ; it was then 18 mm. in length, and in a day or 
two became 19 mm.; on July 1st it suspended itself 
by the tail for pupation, became a pupa on July 5th, 
and the imago appeared July 26th. I fed the larvse on 
Poa annua, Dactylis glomerata, and other common 
grasses. 

The egg is cylindrical, standing on end, the top flat, 
but rising in two shallow steps, the sides with sixteen 
ribs separated by wide grooves, the ribs continued over 
the top to an irregularly- shaped central spot filled with 
reticulation, the transverse lines shallow but regular, 
the shell glistening, at first all over very pale yellow, 
becoming in four or five days whitish with light chest- 
nut brown blotches ; of these there is a large central 
one on the top, and a strong band of them round the 
egg near the top ; the rest are scattered. Just before 
the larva is hatched the egg becomes pale purplish, on 
which the markings are darker but not plain. 



168 HIPPARCHIA TITHONUS. 

The young larva eats the empty eggshell ; it has the 
head large and globular, the usual dots large, each with 
a stiff hair ; the ground colour is whitish-grey, with 
rusty yellow dorsal and subdorsal lines ; along the 
spiracles are two fine lines connected on each segment, 
and so looking like a row of squarish patterns, the head 
yellowish, the dots brown, the hairs whitish ; the front 
segments show the internal vessels. In October, after 
the first moult the larva becomes green, with brownish 
head ; in January it is noted as being of a vivid full 
green, with a few blackish hairs, the head pale 
greenish; in March it is 6 mm. long, in colour full 
green, with dark green dorsal line, yellowish-green 
subdorsal line, and whitish-green spiracular line ; head 
pale green, tinged with brownish, the skin with a few 
blackish hairs. In April it is about 12 mm. long, in 
colour greenish -grey, with dark dorsal, indistinct 
greenish-white subdorsal, and whitish spiracular line, 
head pale greenish-brown. At the end of April it 
moults for the last time, in June it becomes full fed. 
The full-grown larva is about 19 mm. long, stoutest at 
about the seventh segment, thence tapering to either 
end, the back rounded, and the slope towards either 
end falls in a curve ; the belly is flatter, the head wider 
than the second segment, and flattened in front, the 
face being rather wider below than above ; the sub- 
dividing rings give a wrinkled look to the skin ; the 
whole body, head included, is closely set with fine short 
pale bristles ; the anal flap with two short spines 
pointing backwards. The colouring varies a little, 
generally the ground is pale ochreous freckled closely 
on the back with reddish-brown ; the head freckled 
rather darker than the body, and the lobes outlined 
with a dark line ; the dorsal line dusky, widening on 
the middle segments ; the subdorsal line a little paler 
than the ground, edged especially above with some dark 
freckles ; the subspiracular stripe pinkish- white edged 
above with brown freckles, and followed below by a 
yellow tinted stripe, belly like the back; the spiracles 



HIPPAECHIA TITIIONUS. 1 C9 

very small, black ; the anal spikes pale drab. Some 
examples are rather darker than this, and some paler 
with a greenish-grey tinge. 

The larva suspends itself by the tail for pupation. 
The example I had this summer did not get rid of the 
cast larva skin, but the pupa hung with its tail still 
enveloped. The pupa is about 10 mm. long, and 4^ mm. 
across the wing-cases, stumpy in figure ; the head 
ends squarely whether looked at sideways or from 
above ; viewed from below the corners are angulated 
almost like little horns ; the shoulders of the wing- 
cases are also sharply angulated ; the back of the thorax 
rises in a short curve, and drops in at the waist, the 
abdomen swells out in a longer curve, the segmental 
divisions marked by projecting edges ; the wing-cases 
bluntly rounded off below, the ventral outline slightly 
curved ; the anal tip is furnished with two extremely 
short points, one can scarcely call them spikes, which 
seem to have no hooks, and on the ventral snrface 
there is a sort of scutcheon, on the anterior edge of 
which are set two knobs, each with a little curved 
spine pointing backwards, and the use of this arrange- 
ment seems to be for retaining hold on the cast 
shrivelled larva skin, and so suspending the pupa 
safely, a task for which the little anal blunt spikes 
are wholly unfitted. The general colour of the pupa 
I had this summer was pale drab, the antenna-cases 
tipped with brown, the wings outlined a little with 
brown, the abdomen had a more ochreous tint, and its 
rings on the upper side were edged whitish, and with 
brown streaks interrupted by a middle pale stripe, 
spiracles brown. The general effect rendered this pupa 
an inconspicuous object. 

I have, however, an example or two of my 1874 
pupa3, which are marked with much more contrasting 
tints ; the head and wing-cases are ochreous, marked 
and lined with dark brown, and the back has a middle 
stripe of drab with a broad dark brown stripe on either 
side of it, and then a subdorsal drab stripe bordered 



170 SIPPARCHIA TITHONUS. 

again with dark brown ; and there seems to be a good 
deal of variation in the distribution of the dark mark- 
ings. (J. H., '26, 9, 85.) 



HlPPARCHIA HyPERANTHUS. 

Plate V, fig. 3. 

In 1861, July 27th, I received eggs from Dr. Knaggs, 
the larvae from which hatched August 18th, and I must 
have carried them through the winter, and sent some 
to Mr. Buckler in the spring of 1862, but I made no 
further notes. On July 28th, 1885, I captured a 
butterfly, and confined her with plenty of growing 
grass, Dactylis glomerata, Poa annua and others ; next 
day, July 29th, she laid a great many eggs, but without 
attaching them to anything ; they were simply dropped 
and I found them on the bottom of the cage. The 
larvae hatched August 19th, and moulted about the 
end of September ; they are now about 5 \ mm. long, 
sluggish, but feeding a little on Triticum repens. This 
species hibernates in the larva stage, and feeds up in 
May. 

The egg is dumpy, conical in shape, with rounded 
top, about "7 mm. high, more than *8 mm. at its 
widest, and about *6 mm. over the top; the shell 
shining, faintly reticulated (or pitted) in rows ; this 
ornamentation is so slight that it cannot be compared 
to ribs. The colour at first yellowish- white ; this soon 
turns to pale brownish, but the shell remains clear and 
shining, and in about three weeks time the head of the 
larva shows brown with two small black dots of eyes. 
The young larva has a large head, and a stumpy body 
tapering to the tail, about 1*7 mm. long, the usual dots 
large, and each bearing a stiff, curved, ragged bristle ; 
there are no anal points till after a moult ; colour pale 
drab, the head horny, warm brownish, the dorsal and 
subdorsal lines yellowish-brown, the dots slightly 
darker than the ground. When between 5 and 6 mm. 



HIPPARCHIA HYPERANTHUS. 171 

long, the larva is greenish-grey, the head pale brown, 
the strong dorsal line dark, the subdorsal line paler 
than the ground but edged with darker, the spiracular 
line whitish with dark edges, the space between the 
subdorsal and spiracular lines is slightly darker than 
the back; the two anal points short but distinctly 
formed. Of the full-grown larva after hibernation I 
have no notes, nor of the pupa, except that it is very 
dumpy in figure. (J. H., 12, 10, 85.) 



Erebia Cassiope (Epiperon). 
Plate VI, fig. 2 (see ante, p. 33). 

For three years following, 1874-75-76, I obtained 
eggs through the kindness of Mr. W. H. Harwood ; 
these eggs came to me in the first or second week of 
July, the larvaB hatched between July 15th and 20th. 
I got them to feed on Aira jprcecox and A. ccespitosa, 
they seemed to thrive through the autumn, and by the 
beginning of October they attained the length of 
10 to 12 mm. ; then they would hibernate till towards 
the end of next February, when they began to move 
again, but after that every year they died off, so that I 
never brought one to full growth. 

The egg is laid singly, standing on end, upon grass 
blades, and is in shape cylindrical, twice as long as wide, 
its top diminishing in two steps, its centre plain, the 
sides with eighteen broad shallow flutings, neither 
clearly defined nor quite straight, with delicate and 
regular transverse reticulation, the shell slightly 
glossy ; the colour at first, for about twenty-four hours, 
bright yellow, afterwards duller; in three or four 
days pale dull yellow, blotched pretty evenly all over 
with circular patches of small pale brown dots, the 
centre of each patch densely spotted ; in about ten 
days the whole colouring grows duller, and there is 
not so great a contrast between the ground and the 



172 EREBIA CASSIOPE. 

spots ; in about a fortnight the larva is fully formed, 
and can be plainly seen through the transparent shell, 
and it then soon eats its way out at the top of the 
egg, and makes its first meal of the empty shell. The 
young larva is dumpy in figure, stoutest in front, with 
round head ; in colour it is very pale grey, the front 
segments with a purplish tinge from the internal 
organs showing through ; a rich yellow dorsal line, 
two yellow lines on the side, and another just above 
the spiracles ; the head brown, granulated all over ; the 
usual dots jet black, furnished with very short 
bristles ; spiracles black. In about ten days it seems 
to have moulted, and has become green all over, with 
darker green dorsal line, subdorsal line paler than the 
ground colour, and the spiracular line yellowish, the 
head brown. When the larva is about 9 mm. long its 
figure is stout, with the back swelling in a curve which 
is highest about segment 7 ; the head globular, 
rather narrower than the second segment ; the tail set 
with two short spines; the colour all over grass green, 
the dorsal line darker green finely edged with 
yellowish; subdorsal line yellow edged with dark 
green, followed by a finer yellow line, then the green 
spiracular line, and a broad well-defined whitish-yellow 
subspiracular stripe ; the spiracles brown. This colora- 
tion continued nearly unaltered as long as any of my 
larvas lived, except that in the spring the yellowish 
lines grew more whitish, and the head was green. 
(J. H., 24, 10, 85.) 



C^NONYMPHA PAMPHILUS. 

Plate VI, fig. 4. 

I have reared this species more than once, but can 
find no more record of its changes than the following 
notes made in 1874. 

The eggs were laid by captured females 28th May, 



C2EN0NYMPHA PAMPHILUS. 173 

1874, but I do not know when the larvae were 
hatched. August 11th one larva had become a pupa, 
and the rest were about 7 mm. in length. August 
22nd the butterfly appeared, whilst the rest of the 
brood were still larvae, and just then passing through 
a moult ; and these hibernated in the larva state, for 
on February 13th, 1875, I noted the fact that one of 
them was sunning itself on the covering of its cage. 
It seems the knowledge that Mr. Buckler had figured 
the larva in previous years more than once, kept me in 
this case, as well as in so many others, from making 
full notes. I may add that in ' Ent. Mo. Mag.,' vol. 
VI, p. 223, there is a note to the effect that Von 
Prittwitz found Pamphilus to be one of the species 
which pass the winter in the egg state; my record 
above does not seem to agree with this view, but then 
I have no note of eggs laid by the second flight of the 
butterflies in August. 

The egg is somewhat bucket-shaped, with flattish 
base and top, and upright sides, broader at the base 
than above ; the sides with nearly fifty small irregular 
ribs, and faint transverse reticulation, the top thimble- 
pitted all over, the shell glossy, pale green at first, 
turning in a day or two to whitish, freckled and 
ringed with pale yellowish-brown. The full-grown 
larva is about 20 mm. long, with rounded head, the 
body more tapering backwards than in front, the last 
segment with two short points ; the colour a clear 
green, with darker green dorsal stripe, and a spira- 
cular stripe not so dark ; the anal points pink. The 
pupa is rather over 11 mm. in length, plump, but with 
the headpiece somewhat squared ; the abdomen ending 
in a short, stout, rather flattened and curved spike, the 
tip of which is thickly set with curled spines, well 
adapted for holding on to the silk pad; the colour 
mostly green. (J. H., 9, 11, 85.) 

The following very short note on the pupa of 
C. Pamphilus occurs in one of Mr. Buckler's Note 
Books (I, p. 70) : 



174 O^NONYMPHA PAMPHILUS. 

Pupa a little more than three eighths of an inch in 
length, smooth and plump, very slightly ridged or 
keeled on the back of the thorax, the superior margins 
of the wing-cases project on each side as a rather 
sharp ridge; the head rather square in outline, the 
back of abdomen bent round in a curve to the anal 
tip. 

Colour a delicate pale rather yellowish-green, with 
a faintly darker green dorsal stripe, the edge of the 
projecting wing-covers on each side whitish, outlined 
with a streak of reddish-brown ; the abdomen freckled 
very delicately with paler green ; the tip of the anal 
point, with a short streak of brownish red on each side ; 
the wing-cases faintly marked with darker green 
nervures. 

This pupa was received April 16th, 1871, from Miss 
Pasley ; having assumed the pupa state on the 5th of 
that month, suspended to a blade of glass. 



Cynthia caedut. 

Plate VIII, fig. 1 (see ante, p. 49). 

In 1877, July 21st, Dr. T. A. Chapman kindly sent 
me an egg, which he had found on a thistle, after 
watching the parent butterfly settle on it for oviposi- 
tion ; unfortunately after taking a description I injured 
the egg, and so lost the chance of seeing the young 
larva. In 1885, July 21st, I had the pleasure to 
receive from Mr. "W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing, six 
larvae nearly full grown ; they were feeding on 
Onojpordon acanthium, the leaves of which they fast- 
ened together by some tough silken threads, and they 
seemed to eat out the thick fleshy parts of the leaves 
very voraciously. The first became a pupa on July 21st 
and the rest within a week ; the butterflies appeared 
between 1st and 4th of August. On August 17th 
Mr. Fletcher wrote that he had lately seen two pairs 



CYNTHIA CARDUI. 175 

of the butterfly in cop., so that no doubt there has 
been a second brood, or partial brood, this year. Mr. 
Fletcher also informed me that he has found the larva 
feeding on flowers of Echium vulgar e. 

The egg is stout and somewhat barrel shaped, with 
sixteen sharp edged, longitudinal ribs coming over the 
edge of the top, in the centre of which is a large 
circular plain spot ; the transverse reticulation crosses 
the ribs and knobs them ; the colour of the shell is 
dark green, the ribs are pellucid. The full-grown 
larva is about 32 mm. long, stout, with large horny 
head set with bristles, the face being rather long. 
There are seven rows of short, bluntish spines set with 
bristles, and they are arranged as follows : eight in 
the dorsal row on segments 5 to 12, ten in the sub- 
dorsal row on segments 3 to 12, eleven in the lateral 
row on segments 3 to 13, and nine in the subspiracular 
row on segments 5 to 13 ; there are also fascicles of 
hairs on segments 2, 3, and 4, and a row of them just 
above the legs ; the body generally is sparsely set with 
hairs. As to colour I had two varieties, the darker 
having the ground colour blackish, slightly freckled on 
the back with yellowish, the dorsal line, which is 
interrupted by the dorsal spines, is in colour velvety 
black edged with sulphur yellow; there is a sort of 
subdorsal pale line made by the small freckles being 
set closer together in that part, then comes a black 
space edged below with a waved yellow line ; next 
comes a slightly freckled black line bearing the 
spiracles which are black ringed with yellow, and 
below that is a clear, broad yellow line ; there is a black, 
shining plate on segment 13 ; the spines on segment 3 
black, all the others pale yellowish, set with blackish 
bristles, the other hairs pale ; the belly dark grey with 
a reddish streak above each leg, all the legs reddish- 
brown ; the paler variety had the ground colour of a 
dull greyish drab, the dorsal line of the ground colour 
on a more yellowish band, the lateral lines more 
distinct, the spines pinkish with whitish tips. 



176 CYNTHIA CAKDUI. 

The pupa is suspended by the tail, it is about 
22 mm. in length, stout, and though following the 
usual Vanessa pattern, more rounded in its form ; the 
head has a pair of very short, blunt horns, the back of 
the thorax swells up in a round curve, with a short 
blunt spike in the middle, and falls in at the waist; the 
abdomen swells out a little and then curves away 
regularly to the tail ; the belly outline is much less 
curved, the anal spike is like a short curved leaf-stalk 
ending abruptly, and is set round with a ring of hooked 
spines ; down the back there is a middle row of six 
blunt knobs, and a subdorsal row of nine on each side. 
I had two varieties of coloration ; the darker variety 
had the back pale dusky brown finely dotted with black, 
down the middle of the back an interrupted stripe of 
pale pinkish grey glossed with gold, the subdorsal knobs 
golden, and outside them on the abdomen a stripe of 
pinkish grey ; on the under side the wing-cases 
brownish somewhat marked with the pinkish-grey tint, 
the antenna-cases darker and more smoky, the abdomen 
mostly pinkish, but with central and lateral stripes 
more smoky ; on the under side of the head a pale, 
square spot, and short pale lines running out to the 
short horns ; the paler variety had all these same 
markings, but the dusky portions much less extensive, 
and the general colouring greenish with a golden 
glossing or lustre. (J. H., 28, 10, 85.) 



Vanessa Atalanta. 

Plate VIII, ^g. 2. 

I have not many records of this species; perhaps 
one of my most pleasant entomological memories is 
that of seeing the butterfly in good condition flying 
about during a gleam of sunshine on the morning of 
Christmas day, 1866; at last it settled on a child's 
shoulder, and was an object of admiration for some 



VANESSA ATALANTA. 177 

time. In 1883 I found some larvae in their caves 
formed by drawing together the leaves of Urtica dioica, 
but I have not the exact date of this, or of similar 
finds in other years. On July 25th, 1885, Mr. W. H. 
B. Fletcher kindly sent a number of the larvae of 
various sizes, feeding on nettle (Mr. Fletcher informs 
me he has before now found the larva on Parietaria 
officinalis) ; a large proportion of them developed 
ichneumons when rather more than half grown, but 
several became pupae between July 28th and August 
10th ; the first butterfly emerged August 8th, and the 
rest during the month. The smaller larvae were mostly 
black, but so many were killed by ichneumons that 
I got bub few notes of them. The full-grown larva is 
over 30 mm. long, stout, the head horny, with a flat 
face, much larger than the second segment, which is 
both short and narrow ; the body is set with seven 
rows of branched spines (longer than those of C. cardui, 
but not so long as those of V. Io), arranged as follows: 
eight dorsal on segments 5 to 12, ten subdorsal on 
segments 3 to 12, twelve lateral on segments 3 to 13 
(there are two pairs of lateral spines on 13), and eight 
subspiracular on segments 5 to 12 ; the head set with 
glistening warts ; and there are some on the second 
segment, and a few hairs all over the body. The colour 
seems very variable. I had some examples which I 
called black — the ground colour being blackish, freckled 
and dotted with white, with two pale yellow lateral 
stripes, the upper one being much narrower than the 
lower; the spines on segment 3 black, on segment 
4 yellow with black tips, all the other spines pale 
yellow; the thoracic legs black, ventral prolegs reddish- 
brown, anal prolegs black with yellow feet; the spiracles 
indistinct, being black ringed faintly with yellow on 
black ground, below them a stout waved yellow line ; 
the belly black speckled with whitish. Another variety 
was soft grey in general colour, with the spines buff; 
another, grey freckled with yellowish-green, with darker 
marks along the subdorsal region, and a yellow sub- 
vol. i. 12 



178 VANESSA ATALANTA. 

spiracular stripe; others again were dark-brownish, 
with the dorsal and subdorsal spines pale, and the rest 
black ; and some dark ones had all the spines black ; 
one dark variety had the ground colour sooty brown, 
lighter at the segmental folds, and darker in rings as 
it were on the ridges of the segmental subdivisions, 
with minute pale yellow dots, the bases of all the 
spines clear ruddy brown, the spines and bristles 
glistening black ; the spiracles blackish, inconspicuous, 
the subspiracular yellow stripe reduced to a series of 
yellow blotches just at the segmental folds, so that 
half of each blotch was on one segment and half on 
the next, no other lines ; the head sooty brown with 
glistening black warts ; thoracic legs shining black, 
ventral and anal prolegs brown, the feet pink. 

The larva suspends itself for pupation in its cave ; 
the pupa, suspended by the anal spike, is about 24 
mm. long, stout, of the Vanessa figure but somewhat 
rounded; the head with a pair of very short horns, 
the back of the thorax rising to a point and then fall- 
ing in rather sharply to the waist, the abdomen swel- 
ling out in a bold curve to the tail ; there is a dorsal 
row of six very small knobs, and a subdorsal row of 
nine knobs, not so blunt as in C. cardui ; the shoulders 
of the wing-cases rising into two angulated points ; 
the contour of the belly nearly straight, but the 
abdomen curves in a little, the anal spike stout like a 
leaf stem, alittle flattened, curved under, the flat tip set 
with a mass of very short, hard, black curved bristles ; 
the colour is a uniform soft grey, most delicately 
freckled with a darker tint, and somewhat glossed with 
golden; the dorsal knobs are golden but small, the 
subdorsal knobs are larger spots of gold, the largest 
being those at the waist ; there is a large golden spot 
on each side of the belly of the segment in which the 
wing-cases end, the anal spike dark, the narrow spiracles 
pale brownish. Albin, who must have been lucky with 
parasites, says he found some of these pupse gilded 
all over, and that they produced a brood of small but 



VANESSA ATALANTA. 179 

very beautiful ichneumons ; all my examples that 
became pupa3 produced butterflies. As mentioned above 
it was when about half grown the larvae were killed off 
by parasites. (J. H., 29, 10, 85.) 



Vanessa Io. 

Plate VIII, fig. 3. 

On July 7th, 1881, I took some larvae on stinging 
nettle, Urtica dioica, which moulted for the last time 
July 10th, and became pupae July 16th — 20th. In 
1885, July 4th, I found some larvae as yet without 
spines, but they presently moulted before I took any 
notes of their appearance. On July 6th I found another 
family just passed the same moult; after this they 
moulted twice, viz. July 7th and 8th, and July 12th 
—14th; they became pupae July 20th — 22nd, and I 
bred the butterflies August 1st — 3rd. I know nothing 
of the egg, but the whole batch must be deposited 
together, for the larvae are found feeding together in 
families ; they are irritable when disturbed, both walk- 
ing quickly and flinging about their heads, and ejecting 
from their mouths a dark greenish fluid. When the 
larva is about 13 mm. long, before the last moult but 
one, it has the full complement of six rows of spines, 
but they are very short, the spiracular and subspiracu- 
lar rows being scarcely more than high warts ; the skin 
is shining, dingy brown, showing reddish at the seg- 
mental divisions, with faint indications of the white 
dots. With the last moult but one the spines grow 
much longer and stronger, and the colour becomes 
velvety black, and the transverse rows of little white 
dots become distinct. When about 22 mm. long the 
larva moults for the last time, but does not then change 
its appearance much ; the full-grown larva is about 36 
mm. long, rather slender, the segments well marked, 
head wider than the second segment, and set with 



180 VANESSA 10. 

warts ; the spines are quite 3 mm. long, pointed and 
set with bristles, in the subdorsal row there are ten on 
segments 3 to 12, in the spiracular row eight on seg- 
ments 5 to 1 2, in the subspiracular row seven on seg- 
ments 6 to 12, and on 13 there are two pairs placed 
nearly in line with the subdorsal rows ; the general 
colour is velvety black, the dorsal line and the seg- 
mental folds are dead black, the head, the plate on 
segment 2, and the anal plate, are all shining black, 
there is also a small dorsal plate on segment 12 ; the 
subdividing rings of the segments have on them trans- 
verse rows of white dots, the two hinder rings of each 
segment bearing more than the others, the spines are 
black (immediately after a moult they are whitish, 
and being strongly contrasted with the dark skin are 
easy to count), the fine hairs on the head and back 
are pale, those lower down are brown ; the true legs 
are black, the ventral prolegs are pale purplish with 
the feet yellowish, the anal prolegs black with pale 
feet ; the spiracles large, but being black are incon- 
spicuous. 

For pupation the larva suspends itself head down- 
wards from a little pad of silk, and hangs for a couple 
of days in a curved posture, but at length straightens 
itself ; the actual change is the more interesting to 
watch from the contrast between the green of the new 
pupa skin, and the intense black of the old skin of the 
larva. When matured the pupa is over 25 mm. long, 
stout, and mostly cylindrical, though a little angulated, 
the skin wrinkled ; on a side view the back outline is 
much curved, the belly much less so ; the head has two 
triangular diverging horns, the back of the thorax 
rises in an abrupt curve, and has in the middle a short 
spike ; it falls in at the waist, whence the abdomen goes 
in a long curve to the tail, and is set with subdorsal 
rows of six spines on each side, the first blunt, and the 
other five sharp ; the shoulder of the wing-case has a 
short spine, and there is another lower down on the 
edge of the wing-case; the abdomen ends in a long 



VANESSA 10. 181 

stem-like spike, the sides of which are ribbed and 
thicker than the middle, and its tip is set all round 
with a great number of tiny hard black bristles curved 
like hooks, and which radiate regularly outwards in 
every direction. In colour I had two varieties, one pale 
greenish-yellow, the other pale grey, but freckled all 
over with smoky black and so looking dingy ; in both 
varieties the inner sides of the horns, the tips of the 
spines, and the sides of the anal spike, are outlined in 
black, and the lower parts of the spines are tinged with 
reddish ; there is a metallic lustre, especially in the 
pale variety, on the first blunt pair of the subdorsa 
spikes, and on two pairs of blunter humps on either 
side of the thoracic dorsal spike. The wing-cases and 
antenna-cases in both varieties are marked out by lines 
of freckles. Albin says he found pupae gilded all over, 
which produced small ichneumons, but I have not 
myself found any of this species so infested. The 
winter is passed by this species in the butterfly state, 
and the eggs are laid in May. (J. H., 6, 10, 85/ 



Vanessa jjrtigm. 
Plate IX, fig. 2. 
(See ante, p. 55.) 

I have nothing to add about this species, except the 
fact that I have occasionally found its pupa gilded 
nearly all over, and looking very brilliant, but as far 
as I know this appearance is caused by the presence 
of parasites. 

I have carefully described the egg of this species, 
and also that of its congener Polychloros, in the ' Ent. 
Monthly Mag./ vol. VIII, p. 53. (J. H., 6, 10, 85.) 



182 GRAPTA C-ALBUM. 

Grapta C-ALBUM. 
Plate IX, fig. 3. 
(See ante, p. 57.) 

With this species in its earlier stages I had no ac- 
quaintance until this autumn, when on September 18th 
Mrs. Hutchinson kindly sent me a pupa, and next day 
Miss Preston Decie sent me two larvse feeding on hop ; 
and this small supply was obtained with difficulty, 
some enterprising collector having circulated adver- 
tisements in the local papers of the hop-growing 
districts in Herefordshire and Worcestershire, as well 
as posting placards in the villages, to offer to take all 
the larvae and pupae the hop-pickers could find, at a 
certain rate ! The two larvae became pupae on Sep- 
tember 25th and 26th respectively. At the time of 
my present writing all three pupae show signs of the 
butterfly being nearly ready to appear. Mrs. Hutchin- 
son tells me the latest date for its emerging which she 
has known is November 5th. (On examining the cage 
again I find one butterfly just out.) 

The full-grown larva is about 34 mm. long, cylin- 
drical, the segments well cut; the head is horny with the 
face quite flat, each lobe armed with a short horn, the 
tip of which is set with hard warts; the second seg- 
ment about as wide as the head, with a transverse row 
of bristle-bearing warts ; the other segments bear seven 
rows of branched spines in the following order : eight 
dorsal on segments 5 to 12 ; twelve subdorsal on 
segments 3 to 13, both pairs on 13 may be said to 
belong to this row; ten lateral on segments 3 to 12, 
and eight spiracular on segments 5 to 12 ; the dorsal 
spine on each segment is in advance of, and the sub- 
spiracular spine behind the others. The ground colour 
is black dotted with red, the head black ; the second 
segment has a fine red dorsal line ; segments 3 to 6 
have each a transverse red patch on the back, and the 



GKAPTA C-ALBUM. 183 

subdivisions lined in red, and their dorsal and sub- 
dorsal spines red ; then comes on segments 7 to 11 a 
broad dorsal band of white, with a dusky blackish 
dorsal line, and some short black streaks ; here the 
dorsal and subdorsal spines are white ; on 12 this 
white band ends in a wedge shape ; 13 is black but its 
spines are white ; the lateral row of spines all red, the 
subspiracular row pink ; the spiracular region is marked 
with an upper and lower waved red line, with a red 
slanting streak behind each spiracle connecting the 
two ; the spiracles are conspicuous, being black ringed 
with white ; belly blackish with some red-browu marks, 
legs blackish. The larvse suspended themselves for 
pupation from the under side of a hop leaf ; the pupa, 
suspended by the tail, is 20 mm. in length, and very 
contorted in figure ; the head is rather flat, and has 
two straight horns, 1 mm. long, pronged at their tips ; 
the back of the thorax rises up sharply to a thin squared 
central projection, and then falls in again abruptly ; 
the waist hollowed ; the abdomen rising in a bold 
curve to the tail, with its centre line marked more by 
colour than prominence ; there is a subdorsal row of 
nine small knobs, of which the two below the waist are 
the highest ; the wing-cases are prominent, their 
shoulders angulated with two flattened projections, and 
their lower ends humped, and standing up from the 
abdomen ; the belly contour is straight from the head 
to the end of the wing-cases, where it falls in, and the 
abdomen follows the curve of the back to the anal 
spike ; this is long, stem-like, and a good deal curved 
under, the tip thickly set with curled spines. The 
colouring reminds one of the wings of Plusia gamma 
and iota, being purple brown with a pink tinge ; there 
is a pinkish-grey line down the middle of the back of 
the abdomen, and on six of its segments slanting marks 
forming v's with their points towards the tail ; in the 
waist three pairs of silver spots, the first with a dark 
dot in the silver; the other subdorsal knobs tipped 
with reddish ; along the spiracles a rich brown stripe, 



184 GRAPTA O-ALBUM. 

narrowing towards the tail ; a pair of dark dashes on 
the under side of the thorax, and a dark diamond 
pattern down the abdomen ; the spike outlined in pink 
and brown lines. The pupa received from Mrs. 
Hutchinson was darker than the others, but seemed 
to have been injured. (J. H., 31, 10, 85.) 



Thecla Betulji. 
Plate XII, fig. 4. 

This species is not at all so common in the neigh- 
bourhood of Exeter as Th. Quercus, and although I 
have for several years taken the larva in May and June, 
yet all the examples I have seen if put together would 
nob equal the numbers of Quercus taken in a single 
season of average productiveness ; its food-plant, the 
blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), does not ordinarily grow 
except in hedges, and no doubt the clipping and trim- 
ming it there receives keeps down the number of larvae 
that come to perfection. This year (1885) I could 
not find an example, but Mr. Gr. C. Bignell worked 
very hard for me in the neighbourhood of Plymouth, 
and at last obtained one larva, which reached me on 
June 12th; it was then not quite 9 mm. long, 3 mm. 
wide, and its colouring not very different from the 
final appearance, but the skin was more glossy though 
covered with fine pubescence. On June 18th it 
moulted; the cast skin was not eaten. After this it 
seemed to thrive for a time, and grew larger, but I do 
not think it attained perfect growth, and at last it began 
to shrink again, and died about the middle of July. 

On June 29th, whilst it was still thriving, I described 
it as follows : length about 14 mm., greatest width 4J 
mm., namely, at the fifth segment, where it also 
measured 4 mm. in depth from the dorsal ridge to the 
belly, at that segment a transverse section would be 
triangular ; the belly flat, through segments 5 to 13 the 
sides slope from the dorsal ridge down to the subspira- 



THECLA BETULiE. 185 

cular ridge like the roof of a house, from segment 4 
forwards the back widens out, the segments deeply cut, 
the head dark, small, and quite retractile under the 
second segment ; the skin generally dull, but shining 
along the middle of the back, thickly covered with very 
short pubescence ; along the dorsal ridge a double row 
of longer stiff er bristles, and a single row of them along 
the subspiracular ridge ; the colour generally a bright 
light green ; two lines of pale yellow, being in fact two 
rows of short streaks, commence on segment 2, where 
they are widest apart, drawing nearer through 3 and 4, 
and from thence running parallel along the back ; the 
subspiracular ridge has a yellow line edging it, which 
goes all round the anal flap, but on 2 stops where it 
meets the dorsal yellow lines ; on each segment from 
5 backwards are two rows of small yellow streaks 
slanting downwards and backwards ; on 4 there is only 
the upper streak, none on 2 and 3 ; about the middle 
of the streak in the lower row comes the oval spiracle 
outlined with brown on a raised round whitish spot ; 
belly and legs more whitish green ; the hinder pairs of 
trapezoidal dots can be detected, not easily, being paler 
than the ground ; the coloration gives the effect of a 
double dorsal ridge, but this is not so really. I have 
no account of the pupa. (J. H., 1, 10, 85.) 



Thecla Quercus. 

Plate XIII, fig. 2. 

Ever since I began to collect I have been accustomed 
to get larvge of this species from oaks in May and June, 
but never from any other tree, although I have seen 
the butterflies sporting about and settling upon the 
ash. In 1877 Mr. Bignell sent me an egg which he 
had watched the butterfly deposit on a sallow leaf. I 
suppose the larva is hatched in spring, but am not 
sure ; it is full fed (according to the character of the 
season) from the end of May to near the end of June, 



186 THECLA QUE RGUS. 

and the date of my first imago varies I see from 23rd 
June (1865) to 15th July (1867) ; this year (1885), after 
a great deal of hard work, I got one larva on June 9th, 
just in its last moult, and Mr. Bignell beat out two on 
June 11th. We were disappointed at not getting more, 
but the early summer was very cold and backward, and 
many larvse must have been killed ; two of these larvae 
hid themselves for pupation June 14th to 18th, and I 
bred the perfect insects July 14th to 16th. The egg 
is of the shape common to the Lyccenidce, only larger 
than that of any of our Blues ; for instance its wide 
diameter compared with that of the egg of Argiolus is 
as 4 to 3, and this of course indicates a considerable 
increase of bulk ; it is round in outline, flattened, and, 
with the exception of a central depression on the upper 
surface, covered with irregular oblong reticulation, the 
lines of which, much more prominent on the top than 
with any of the Blues, on the sides become so exagge- 
rated that at the knobs they stand out like spines, and 
the egg looks quite like a rough Echinus in miniature ; 
the under surface, which rests on the leaf (or stem), is 
only granulated ; the shell under the reticulation 
apparently has a very pale pinkish-brown tinge ; the 
lines of the reticulation are whitish. 

The smallest larva of which I have any notes was 8 
mm. long, just at the time of its last moult. I could 
not find the cast skin and thought it had been eaten. 
The full-grown larva was 16 mm. long, and not quite 
5 mm. wide ; its figure is generally called onisciform, 
but I know Mr. Buckler had come to reject this term 
except for the larva of 0. Phlceas ; he thought the 
flattened lateral ridge rendered the similitude inexact. 
The head is small, rounded, and entirely retractile into 
and under the second segment ; viewed from above the 
second segment is the longest and tapers to the head ; 
the width is almost even from segment 3 to 12, but 12 
is a little narrower than the rest, 13 is much narrower 
and tapers off roundly in almost a circular curve; 
viewed sideways the back arches in a curve, highest at 



THECLA QUEROUS. 187 

segments 5 and 6 ; the segments are strongly divided, 
each sloping forward so that the back edge of the next 
rises like a notch, except between 2 and 3, for 3 rises 
higher than 2 at its front edge; 11 and 12 are also 
less distinctly divided. Below the spiracles each seg- 
ment is produced into a flattened ridge, thus causing 
the great proportional width ; the belly is flat ; a 
transverse section of the larva would be almost trian- 
gular; all the legs are short and well under the body, 
the motion is even, almost gliding ; the general colouring 
is brown ; the centre of the back is fawn colour, with 
a dark-brown dorsal line bordered with yellowish, which 
looks like a groove ; the second segment is edged with 
yellowish, and has a central brown spot in front with 
a greyish patch ; the third has a semicircular brown 
patch with its curve behind ; the fourth has a similar 
patch, but smaller ; on each of segments 3 to 10 there 
is in the subdorsal region a pale streak slanting down- 
wards and backwards edged below with very dark 
brown, growing wider and more intense backwards ; 
these streaks map off the centre of the back ; below 
them the side is darker than the back, the edge of the 
ridge is yellowish ; some way above the ridge are the 
round, small, dark brown spiracles, placed in a hollow. 
On segments 11 and 12 the centre of the back is brown, 
the sides yellowish, the hinder part of 12 chestnut ; 
13 has a small squarish chestnut patch at the tip, 
bordered with yellowish-white ; the colour under the 
ridge is reddish-brown, just above the legs is a pale 
line ; centre of the belly blackish ; true legs black and 
shining, with a fringe of bristles along them on the 
outside, the prolegs soft pale brownish-ochreous. 

For pupation the larva spins a few threads, making 
a frail sort of cocoon just on the surface of the earth, 
or availing itself of the shelter of a fallen leaf ; the 
pupa is stout and rounded in outline, about 9 mm. 
long and rather more than 4 mm. at its widest, the 
back rounded, the belly more flattened, the abdomen 
not extending more than 3 mm. beyond the wing-cases, 



188 THECLA QUERCUS. 

which are rounded off short, the tail rounded off with- 
out any knob or spike ; the skin a little roughened but 
glossy, on both sides of the abdomen the skin is set 
with tiny short bristles with flat heads, like old- 
fashioned flat-headed pins ; the colour mahogany-red 
on the back, freckled with darker, and the dark slanting 
marks on the side of the larva seem retained, the wing- 
cases paler and not much freckled, under side of the 
abdomen reddish without freckling. (J. H., 30, 9, 85.) 



POLTOMMATUS (LyC^GNa) ArGIOLUS. 

Plate XI Y, fig. 1. 

(See ante, p. 94.) 

Mr. W. EL B. Fletcher informs me he has taken the 
larva of this species on flowers of Comus sanguinea at 
Worthing. (J. H., 29, 10, 85.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LYC^NA) ArION. 

(See ante, p. 104) ; one of the few larvae of which there 
is no figure in this volume. 

Mr. Buckler's notes on this species having been 
given, perhaps I may as well add the little I can to his 
account, in order to give all the help possible towards 
the full discovery of its habits. 

On 28th June, 1858, I captured ten butterflies, 
having started for their habitat at 3 a.m. and getting 
home again about 10.30 p.m., the longest entomological 
excursion I ever made ; at that time I had no thought 
of rearing anything from the egg, and took no pains 
to watch the movements of the females ; however, on 
July 6th and 8th, 1865, some local collectors obtained 
eggs, and sent them to me, but I find no note about the 
larvae, and believe that when they hatched I gave them 



POLTOMMATUS (LYCiENA) ARION. 189 

various vetches, which of course they would not eat, 
and must have soon died. In March, 1869, Professor 
Zeller toldus in the 'Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' 
vol. VI, p. 10, what his experience had been, and set 
us right as to the food-plant, Thymus serpyllum ; so 
next year (1 870), when Mr. Buckler forwarded me some 
eggs, June 21st, both of us felt confident the way was 
clear to a full knowledge of the life-history. The larvae 
hatched on June 24th, and were placed on wild thyme 
flowers, and fed away most satisfactorily ; several of 
them got through one moult, and then about the 
middle of July they all ceased feeding and died off. 
On 26th July I visited a locality for the species, and 
found traces of the larvae having fed on several heads 
of thyme flowers, but could find no larvae either on the 
plants or under them. 

In 1872, July 1st, Mr. Merrin sent me eggs, and the 
larvae hatched in two or three days, but they must 
soon have died, for I find nothing more noted about 
them ; I noticed, however, on the thyme flowers a 
small coleopterous larva not unlike them in colour and 
figure. June 24th, 1873, Mr. Merrin again sent me 
eggs, and the larvae began to hatch immediately, and 
were placed for a day or two on flowers of garden 
thyme, and again I noticed a little beetle larva ; on 
July 1st came more eggs from Mr. Merrin, and by this 
time I had wild thyme ready for them, planted in a 
large flower-pot, and full of bloom ; on this some of 
the larvae lived till July 28th, when they were seen to 
be restless as if in search of something I had not given 
them, and after that I could note no more. On 23rd 
May, 1875, Mr. Gr. F. Mathew searched carefully the 
thyme plants in the haunts of last year's butterflies, 
but found only beetle larvae, by this time black in 
colour, and similar larvae were found by a local col- 
lector ; on July 6th and 22nd, Mr. Bignell and Mr. 
Mathew sent me living butterflies, some of which laid 
eggs, but I was able to add nothing more to the notes 
made in previous years. 



190 polyommatus (lymna) arion. 

All these failures puzzled us much ; after three weeks' 
feeding on the thyme flowers the larvae seemed to 
want something else — what could it be ? We thought 
of furze blossoms and tried them, but to no purpose. 
The localities in which the butterfly occurs differ very 
much in situation, some being inland, and some close 
to the sea, and Professor Zeller's note mentions moist 
open meadows at the foot of hills, and also lofty fir 
forests, the only point of agreement being the occur- 
rence of Thymus serpyllum in all of them, except, per- 
haps this other characteristic, that they are all places 
of rather troublesome access, and therefore not easy 
to be thoroughly searched. Of late years too, the 
butterfly seems dying out in England, whatever may 
be the cause. Professor Zeller had not long before 
his death promised Mr. Buckler he would make an ex- 
pedition purposely to search for the larva in spring, 
but that hope was doomed to disappointment ; we must 
wait till someone can devote time to the investigation 
in situ of the problem whether the larva feeds up before 
winter (like P. Argiolus) or not till after hibernation 
(like P. Adonis), and whether there is any real ground 
for our surmise that there is any migration from thyme 
to another food-plant. 

The egg seems to be deposited among the flowers of 
Thymus serpyllum, it is circular in figure, and flattened, 
covered all over, except a central depressed spot on 
top, with fine raised, irregular reticulation, which in 
profile stands out strongly ; colour of shell the blue- 
green of a hedge-sparrow's egg, the reticulation trans- 
parent white ; I have no measurements noted, only the 
comparison that it is thrice the bulk of the egg of P. 
Alsus. 

The newly-hatched larva is a stumpy, plump little 
fellow, with small head ; at first dull greenish, but soon 
pinkish-brown, head black ; after a moult I found it 
about 4 mm. long, and more purple in colour. (J. H., 
9, 10, 85.) 



POLYOMMATUS (LYCiENA) COEYDON. 191 



PoLYOMMATUS (LYO^NA) CoEYDON. 

Plate XIV, fig. 3. 

All that I know of this species is given in the 
account of Adonis, see ante, p. 109, and I can only 
repeat here that both Mr. Buckler and myself took 
the utmost pains to examine and describe the larvae of 
Adonis and the single one of Corydon there mentioned. 



POLYOMMATUS (LyC^Na) ALEXIS. 

Plate XV, fig. 2. 

(See ante, p. 111.) 

On 29th April, 1865, I found a nearly full-grown 
larva on Lotus corniculatus, and sent it to Mr. Buckler, 
and on 27th July of the same year Mr. H. Doubleday 
sent me several larvae on Ononis arvensis, from which 
I bred the butterflies August 15th to 19th. On 
August 25th, 1875, I watched a number of the butter- 
flies laying their eggs on Lotus corniculatus, the axil 
of a leaf being the spot generally selected, and some of 
these eggs I secured ; the larvae began to appear 
August 30th and fed away through the next month, 
and I have a note that on February 5th, 1876, I had 
one larva more than half grown, but this afterwards 
died, its companions apparently having died previously 
to the date of that note. On June 10th 3 1885, I 
caught a ? butterfly, and enclosed her in leno over a 
plant of Lotus corniculatus, and on the 12th, finding 
she had laid a few eggs, I let her go again. The 
larvae were hatched June 23rd, and were all kept on 
their food-plant out-of-doors ; three or four of them 
outstripped the rest in growth, and moulted at the 
beginning of July, and again on July 12th. I could 
not be certain of the dates of further moults, but there 
was one about July 20th ; these larvae became full fed 



192 POLYOMMATUS (LYC^Na) ALEXIS. 

about July 27th, and by the 29th two had become 
pupse, and two others a day or two later, and I bred 
the butterflies on August 15th; meanwhile the other 
larvae, though treated just in the same way, had grown 
much more slowly, and were not half grown when 
these butterflies appeared ; afterwards one of them 
grew more quickly and became a pupa, September 
22nd, in which state it now remains ; the rest died. 
These notes are meagre enough, but they seem to 
show that the winter is passed in the larva stage, and 
that through the summer the succession of broods may 
be irregular. The egg is much like those of all our 
Blues which I have been able to examine, circular, 
rather flat, being just \ mm. in width, and less than 
half that measurement in height; the shell is dull, 
covered on the sides and just over the edge of the 
upper surface with raised reticulation, having project- 
ing knobs at the knots ; this reticulation becomes finer 
and less prominent on the upper surface, which has a 
central depressed spot; this spot is green, while the 
general ground colour is greenish-white, and the 
reticulation glistening white. The larva makes its 
escape by eating a large round hole in the centre of 
the upper surface of the egg, but leaves the rest of 
the shell untouched, and for some days in feeding only 
eats into the substance of a leaf of Lotus corniculatus, 
either from the upper or the under side, leaving the 
opposite skin as a white spot, but it can eat the flower 
entirely. The newly hatched larva is not quite 1 mm. 
in length, of dumpy figure, the head very small, the 
second segment as wide as, and longer than, any of 
the others, and having a semicircular plate with its 
rounded edge in front, down the back a row of trans- 
verse pits on the front edge of each segment ; the 
general colour grey with purplish tinge, the segmental 
divisions green, the belly yellowish ; the usual dots 
black on grey warts, and furnished each with a rather 
long, curved, glistening bristle ; the whole skin besides 
is finely sprinkled with tiny black dots ; the head 



POLYOMMATUS (LYC2ENA) ALEXIS. 193 

shining black, the plate on the second segment rather 
darker than the ground ; the spiracles black. When 
about 1^ mm. long it passes the first moult, not eating 
the cast skin, and is now pale olive drab all over, the 
usual dots paler than before, only outlined in black ; 
the bristles have increased in number, some being short 
and pale, others longer and darker. The larva is 
about 2J mm. long before the next moult, and its 
colour is dull pale green, with a paler double dorsal 
line, and paler subspiracular line ; after this moult the 
back is pale greyish-green, with the lines on the dorsal 
ridges rather paler ; the spiracles round, pale brownish, 
inconspicuous; the skin set with a number of small 
warts ; along the dorsal and subspiracular ridges are 
rows of long bristles, and on the sides some shorter 
ones. When 9 mm. long the larva is dull full green in 
colour, with the subspiracular ridge yellowish, the belly 
and legs yellowish-green, the head shining black, the 
spiracles green, indistinct, the bristles very pale 
brownish. The full grown-larva is 12 or 13 mm. long, 
and nearly 4 mm. wide, the head small, and under the 
second segment, which is flattened, the other segments 
slope from the subspiracular ridge up to the double 
dorsal ridge, the last three sloping down also to the 
tail ; the segmental divisions deeply cut, the whole skin 
finely set with tiny hairs ; the colour a dark full green 
all over, the dorsal ridges paler, the subspiracular 
ridge yellowish, the sunken spiracles pale green, the 
head shining black. None of my larvae have spun 
any girdle for supporting themselves in pupation, 
although they went up to the cover of their cage 
for that change ; and when it took place the cast larva 
skin remained fixed, whilst the pupa had fallen down. 
The pupa is nearly cylindrical though rather wider 
than deep, rounded at the ends, 10 mm. long and 
4 mm. wide across the abdomen ; the back of the 
thorax rises with a round curve, and drops a little at 
the waist, the abdomen going in a curve to the tail ; 
the wing-cases rounded, the pupa skin, especially at 

13 



194 POLTOMMATQS (lYCJJNA) ALEXIS. 

tlie wing-cases, very delicate and shining; colour 
generally pale green, head pale brownish, wing-cases 
with a very faint brown tinge, a dark green line down 
the middle of the back of abdomen, the spiracles 
whitish, a few short bristles scattered on the skin. 
(J. H., 7, 10, 85.) 

Dr. R. C. R. Jordan informs me that he often 
found this species hibernating as a larva when he was 
in Devonshire ; specially on one occasion when, in 
company with Mr. Stainton, he was searching for cases 
of Coleophora discordella on Lotus comiculatus . I am 
the more glad of this corroboration because Alexis has . 
been said to hibernate in the egg, and again as a 
pupa ; and Dr. Jordan thinks that in colder localities 
this last view represents the true state of the case. 
(J. H., 31, 10, 1885.) 



Steeopes Paniscus. 

Plate XVII, fig. 1 (see ante, p. 129). 

The larvae, which Mr. Buckler figured and described, 
came into my possession in February, 1884; I found 
them hibernating in their silken caves among the 
growing blades of the plant of Brachypodium sylvaticum, 
on which he had reared them, and for the purpose of 
taking them with me I was obliged to cut off these 
caves and put them in a tin box, and in so doing I 
may have disturbed their rest. On bringing them 
home I placed the caves on a fresh plant of the grass, 
which stood in my window enclosed in a glass cylinder, 
and before long the larvae left them and walked 
about the grass, until they all got to the top edge of 
the cylinder or its gauze covering, and there, after 
doing a little spinning, they fastened themselves by 
their tails, and with a silken belt round the middle, and 
became pupae during the second and third weeks of 
March. I suppose this may be their natural habit, 



STEROPES PANISCUS. 195 

but as I never saw the larvse eat anything, I doubted 
whether they ought to have left their winter quarters 
at all, and whether they should not have turned to 
pupa3 in their caves. The first butterfly appeared on 
April 30th. 

The length of a larva after hibernation was about 
20 mm., the ground colour pale creamy white, dorsal 
line pale reddish-brown, subdorsal line yellowish 
edged on each side with reddish-brown, the spiracular 
line also of the same colour ; the small spiracles dis- 
tinct brown ; the head slightly tinged with blackish, 
the mouth dark brown. 

The pupa is 15 mm. long, slender, nearly cylindrical, 
the head blunt and the eyes rather prominent, with a 
sharp spike more than 1 mm. long between them ; the 
back swelling up on the thorax with a gradual curve, 
and falling away again in the same manner, so that 
the back of the abdomen is almost hollow, but curving 
up again at the tail ; the wing-cases reaching about 
two-thirds of the full length; the anal end rounded, 
but with a flat spike set at the tip with a dozen or 
more curled spines of different lengths ; the colour on 
the back creamy white, with a very dark brown thin 
central line from the head spike nearly to the tail, a 
subdorsal line of pale buff bordered with reddish-brown, 
and then a shorter buff line edged below again with 
reddish-brown ; the wing-cases and ventral surface pale 
flesh colour faintly tinged with dusky, the straight 
tongue-case dark brown. (J. H., 10, 11, 85.) 



Pamphila linea. 

Plate XVII, fig. 3 (see ante, p. 139). 

In 1865, July 29th, Dr. Knaggs sent me eggs of 
this species laid in a row in folded grass, but how he 
managed to get the butterfly to lay them I do not 
know; the larvre hatched on August 12th; most of 



196 PAMPHILA LINEA. 

them soon disappeared, but one survived till the middle 
of November ; it was then only about 2 mm. in length, 
so I must have mismanaged it. In July and August of 
1875 and 1876 I caught a number of the butterflies, 
and confined them, but could not induce them to part 
with a single egg ; at last in 1876 I took some recently 
dead butterflies and carefully squeezed the eggs through 
their ovipositors, and in each case the egg which first 
came out proved fertile, but no more. The larvae 
began to hatch on August 15th, they soon spun little 
ropes of silk across the blades of grass, and made little 
web coverings for themselves, but they would not feed, 
and an accident soon after befel their cage, and I saw 
them no more. 

The egg is not at all like that of P. sylvanus, but is 
considerably smaller, of a long oval figure, half as long 
again as wide, the shell glistening, devoid of ribs or 
reticulation ; at first white, then turning dull yellowish, 
and at last paler again with the dark head of the larva 
showing through. The young larva eats part of the 
empty egg-shell ; in shape it is slender, cylindrical, 
even in bulk, the head longer than the second segment 
but scarcely wider ; the skin very smooth, no bristles 
except on segments 2 and 13, and some very short 
ones on the head ; colour pale dull yellow, with a faint 
dorsal vessel ; head dull pale brown, and a faint 
brownish crescent-shaped collar on the second segment. 
(J. H., 25, 9, 85.) 



Pamphila sylvanus. 

Plate XVII, fig. 4 (see ante, p. 141). 

In 1875, June 26, I caught and confined several 
butterflies, some of which laid eggs about July 1st, 
and the larvae were hatched July 13th; they chose 
cock's-foot grass tor food, and rested in the middle of 
a blade, fastening its edges across with five or six dis- 



PAMPHILA SYLVANUS. 197 

tinct little ropes of white silk. August 5th two of 
these larvae were about 12 mm. long, and were then 
feeding on couchgrass ; of these I have no further 
record. In 1876, July 13th, butterflies were again 
caught, and soon laid eggs, the larvse from which 
hatched on July 26th. On August 13th a larva was 
measured, it was about 12 mm. long. On August 23rd 
the larvse had not increased in length, but were grown 
stouter, and were spinning hiding places for them- 
selves among the grass blades. On November 16th they 
were found to be all resting in close fitting, long and 
narrow, tough silken hibernacula ; the larvae, which had 
been put upon garden riband-grass, spun among the 
withered blades, but those, which had been living on 
narrower grasses, spun in folds of the leno covering of 
their cage. May 11th, 1877, I found the larvae 
moulting for the last time, and I believe the full fed 
larvae were sent to Mr. Buckler. 

In confinement the butterflies laid their eggs openly 
and singly, but I suppose in freedom would lay them 
within a grass sheath. The egg is large, nearly 
globular with flattened base, some examples a little 
depressed on top ; the shell is dull and finely granulated, 
and covered all over with extremely faint blunt hexa- 
gonal reticulation, with finer reticulation just on the 
top ; colour dull white, afterwards tinged with yellow. 
The young larva eats all the empty eggshell but the 
base. I have no note of its size, but its skin is rather 
puckered, the head large and smooth, stuck on like a 
large flattish button ; the usual dots very small, set 
with the very shortest bristles I ever noticed in a 
young larva, giving the larva a very bare look ; the 
colour is pale yellowish, the dots black, the head and 
a narrow collar on the second segment are brilliant jet 
black; no anal plate; the four bristles on the 13th 
segment are somewhat longer than the rest. At the 
end of three weeks the larva is about 12 mm. in 
length, colour now dull green, head and a thin curved 
collar shining black. At this time it spins together the 



198 PAMPHILA SYLVANUS. 

edges of the grass blades, and makes an opaque web 
not much bigger than itself for a biding place. After 
hibernation, in May, its size is noted as 25 mm. in 
length, the figure viewed from above nearly even in 
width, tapering a little at segments 2 and 13, 
but viewed sideways it tapers in a curve considerably 
from segment 8 to 13, which last is flattish, and 
forward again to 2, which is the smallest seg- 
ment; the head is like a knob, but the lobes are 
divided; the ventral surface is flat. Altogether the 
appearance is plump. The colour is now pale green, 
the skin thickly covered with very short dark brown 
bristles, the head dirty white, with dark brown stripe 
down the outer edge of each lobe, the neck whitish- 
green. I have no notes of the fullgrown larva or 
pupa. (J. H., 25, 9, 85.) 



Pamphila comma. 

(One of the few larvae of which there is no figure 
in this volume, see ante, p. 142.) 

On 24th August, 1867, Mr. Brown, of Cambridge, 
sent me a few eggs of this species. I kept them out- 
of-doors, and on 27th March 1868, I found the larva 
eating his way out of one of them. He was so slow 
about it, that I had to attend to something else before 
he got out, and when I was able to attend to him again 
he had managed to disappear. The only value of 
this note therefore lies in this, that it indicates the 
habit of the species to hibernate in the egg. (J. H., 
12, 11, 85.) 



PARASITES. 



190 



The following list of parasites, bred from trie larvas 
oi' pupa? of British Butterflies, has been kindly for- 
warded by Mr. G. 0. Bignell, F.E.S.— H. T. S. 



Host. 



Gonepteryx rhamni 



Pieris hrassicce. 



rajpoe 



„ Daplidice ... 

Hipparchia Janira 

„ Tithonus 

Cynthia cardui . 



Paeasite. 



1 Limneria vulgaris, Tschek 

2 Mesochorus gracilentus, Brischke 

3 Hemiteles fulvipes, Gravenhorst... 

4 Mesochorus aciculatus, Bridgman 

5 Apanteles glomeratus, Linne ... \ 

Hemiteles fulvipes, Gravenhorst. . . 
Mesochorus aciculatus, Bridgman 

Apanteles glomeratus, Linne ... < 

6 Apanteles rubecula, Marshall 

7 Pteromalus puparum, Swed 

8 JExorista vulgaris, Fallen 5 

9 Anomalon xanthopus, Schrank . . . 

Apanteles nothus, Reinhard 

Bhogas tristis, Wesmael 

Limneria exareolata, Ratzeburg. . . 

Pimpla diluta, Ratzeburg j 

Br aeon variator, Nees 



By whom Bred. 



G. 0. Bignell. 
Bignell. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 

Bignell and 
others. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 

Bignell and 

others. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell, 
J.E.Fletcher. 

G.F.Mathew. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

0. G. Barrett, 
Bridgman. 

F. N. Pierce. 



1 This parasite forms its cocoon within the larva, and so constructs 
it that the skin of the larva is made to do duty for an extra protection. 

2 Hyperparasite on Limneria vulgaris. 

3 and 4 are hyperparasites on A. glomeratus. 

5 The young larvae of P. hrassicce are often attacked before the first 
moult, 'Entomologist,' vol. xviii, p. 326. 142 bred from one larva, 
' Ento.,' vol. xvi, p. 263. 

6 A solitary parasite on larva not half grown. 

7 One of the Chalcidido3 bred from the pupa. 

8 A dipteron, sometimes escaping from the larva, at others forming 
a pupa within the pupa of the victim. 

9 Pupa from Baklar, Turkey. The parasite has been captured in 
Devonshire by Bignell, and bred from a Noctua by Bridgman. 



200 



PARASITES. 



Host. 



Cynthia cardui .... 
Vanessa Atalanta 



,, urticm ... 

Grapta C- Album ... 
Argynnis Paphia. . . 

Melitcea Artemis . . . 



Thecla betulce 



„ W- Album ... 
Polyommatus Alsus 



Parasite. 



Apanteles emarginatus, N"ees 



Amblyteles armatorius, Forster, 

J.R . 

Hemiteles fulvipes, Gravenhorst. . . 



Limneria cursitans, Holmgren 



10 Mesochorus sylvarum, Haliday .., 



Microgaster subcompletus, Nees 



r 



L 



Limneria unicincta. Gravenhorst 

Apanteles spurius, Wesmael 

Pteromalus puparum, Swed 

Pimpla fiavonotata, Holmgren ... 
Pteromalus puparum, Swed 

Amblyteles homocerus, "Wesmael... 
11 Hemiteles melanarius, Gravenhorst 



12 Apanteles Bignellii, Marsh.. 
Apanteles spurius, Wesmael 



...{ 



Agryponflaveolatum, Gravenhorst 

Campoplex pugillator, Linne 

Campoplex eurynotus, Forster, A. 



Perilitus scutellator, Nees 



Limneria sordida, Gravenhorst ] 
Mesochorus confusus, Holmgren. . . 



By whom Bred. 



Pierce. 

T. A. Marshall 
J.B.Bridgman 

H. M. Golding. 

Bird, 
Mrs. Norgate. 

Bignell. 

H. M. Golding. 
Bird, 

Mrs. Norgate, 
J. Hellins, 
and others. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

R. M. Sotheby. 

W.H.Harwood. 
Harwood. 

Bignell. 
F. 0. Lemann. 

Bignell. 

Bignell, 

Robson, 

and others. 

Bignell. 

T. Eedle. 

Eedle. 

Y. R.Perkins. 

W. H. B. 

Fletcher. 
Fletcher. 



10 Hyperparasite on M. subcompletus. 

11 This is often a hyperparasite. In this instance it was a direct 
parasite, and 2 $ and 16 $ were bred from a pupa. 

12 The larvae from which these were bred were found by a gentleman 
at Ebberly, near Roborough, N. Devon, 4^ miles from Great Torrington. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Acis, Polyommatus (Lycaena) 

foot-note xvi 
Actaeon, Pamphila . . . 135 
Adippe, Argynnis . . .65 
Adonis, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) 106 

iEgeria, Lasiommata . 27, 163 
iEgon, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) ..... 112 
Agestis, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) .... 116, 121 
Aglaia, Argynnis . . .71 
Alexis, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) . . . .111, 191 
Alsus, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) 100 

Alveolus, Thymele . . .123 
Antiopa, Yanessa . . . 52 
Argiolus, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) . . . . 94, 188 
Arion, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) .... 105, 188 
Artaxerxes, Polyommatus 

(Lycaena) .... 121 
Artemis, Melitaea . . .84 
Atalanta, Yanessa . . . 176 
Athalia, Melitaea . . .81 



Betulae, Thecla 
Blandina, Erebia 
Brassicae, Pieris 



184 
30 

148 



C-Album, Grapta . . 57, 182 
Cardamines, Anthocharis . 159 
Cardui, Cynthia . . 49, 174 
Cassiope, Erebia . . 33, 171 
Oinxia, Melitaea, figured Plate 
XI, fig. 3 ; but no descrip- 
tion. 
Comma, Pamphila . . 142, 198 

VOL. I. 



PAGE 

Corydon, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) ..... 191 

Crataegi, Aporia, figured Plate 
II, fig. 1; but no descrip- 
tion. 

Daplidice, Pieris . . .21 
Davus, Coenonympha . . 35 
Dispar, Chrysophanus, only 
mentioned in Preface, p. vii. 



. 9 
33, 171 

. 77 

. 160 

. 16 
. 170 

. 179 

. 42 

. 166 



Edusa, Colias . 
Epiphron, Erebia . 
Euphrosyne, Argynnis 

Galathea, Arge 

Hyale, Colias . 
Hyperanthus, Hipparchia 

Io, Yanessa 
Iris, Apatura . 

Janira, Hipparchia 

Lathonia, Argynnis, foot-note xvi 
Linea, Pamphila . . 139, 195 
Lucina, Nemeobius . . 85 

Machaon, Papilio ... 1 
Medea, Erebia . . .30 
Medon, Polyommatus (Ly- 
caena) .... 116, 121 
Megaera Lasiommata . .165 

Napi, Pieris . . .20, 156 

Pamphilus, Coenonympha . 172 
Paniscus, Steropes . . 129, 194 
Paphia, Argynnis . . .58 
Phlaeas, Chrysophanus . . 91 

14 



202 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Polychloros, Yanessa . . 54 
Pruni, Thecla, figured Plate 
XII, fig. 5 ; but no descrip- 
tion. 

Quercus, Thecla . . . 185 

Rapas, Pieris . . .19, 152 
Rhamni, Gonepteryx . . 145 
Rubi, Thecla . . . .89 

Selene, Argynnis . . .73 
Semele, Hipparchia . .28 



Sibylla, Limenitis . 
Sinapis, Leucophasia 
Sylvanus, Pamphila 

Tages, Thanaos 
Tithonus, Hipparchia 

Urtica3, Yanessa 



PAG-E 

. 36 

. 25 

141, 196 

. 126 
. 167 

55, 181 



W - Album, Thecla, figured 
Plate XIII, fig. 1; but no 
description. 



PRINTED BY J. E. ADLARD, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



PLATE I. 

Papilio Maohaon. 

1, larva after first moult ; 1 <x, after second moult ; 
1 b, after third moult ; 1 c, 1 d 9 1 e, after fourth moult ; 
1/, pupa. 

See pp. 1—8. 

• 

GrONEPTERYX RHAMNI. 

2, 2 a, larvae when nearly full grown; 2 b, pupa 
attached to leaf. 

See pp. 145 — 148. 

COLIAS EDUSA. 

3, larva after second moult; 3 a, after third moult; 
3 b, 3 c, 3 d, after fourth moult ; 3 e, pupa. 

See pp. 9 — 15. 



PlsLte I 



1 (X, 






^ 




1 "b 





i a. 




3 cc 








F.C.Moore litk. 



W.BXJCKIvEPv del. 



3 c. 

West, Newman. & C? imp. 



PLATE II. 

AP0RIA OEATJ1GI. 

1, larva after third moult ; 1 a, 1 b, after fourth 
moult ; 1 d, young gregarious larva after first moult ; 
1 e, after second moult ; 1 c, pupa. 

There is no description of this in the volume. 

PlERIS BRASSICJ1. 

2, full-grown larva ; 2 a 9 pupa. 

See pp. 148—152. 



PlERIS RAP^l. 

3, full-grown larva ; 3 a, pupa. 

See pp. 19, 20, and 152—155. 



PlERIS NAPI. 

4, full-grown larva ; 4 a, pupa. 

See pp. 20, 21, and 156—159. 



Plate II. 











U, 



J 




1 a. 








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W.BUCKLER d&L. 



"West,NewDarvaiL & C° irrrp. 



PLATE III. 

PlERIS DaPLIDIOE. 



1,1a, larvse after fourth moult ; 1 b, magnified view 
of a segment, the arrow indicating the direction of 
forward motion, and consequently which is the ante- 
rior part of the segment ; 1 c, pupa. 

See pp. 21—25. 



Anthooharis cardamines. 

2, full-grown larva ; 2 a, pupa. 
See pp. 159, 160. 



Leuoophasia sinapis. 

3, larva after fourth moult ; 3 a, full-grown larva ; 
3 b, pupa. 

See pp. 25—27. 



Arge Galathea. 

4 a, larva after third moult ; 4, 4 b, 4 c, after fourth 
moult ; 4 d 9 pupa. 

See pp. 160—163. 



Plate III. 




lb. 





2 oc. 



1 CL 





4-. 




3 b 





4- a. 



4 d. 






4 c 




F. C.Mooie litk.. 



W.BUCK.LER dueJU. 



"West.Ne-wmaja & C ? imp . 



PLATE IV. 

LASIOMMATA iEGERIA. 

1, 1 b, larva just after hibernation ; 1 a, 1 c, full- 
grown larva ; 1 d, pupa. 

See pp. 27, 28, and 163, 164. 

Lasiommata Meg^ra. 

2 a, larva after fourth moult ; 2, 2 b 9 full-grown 
larva ; 2 c, pupa. 

See pp. 165, 166. 

HlPPAECHIA SEMELE. 

3, 3 a, 3 b 9 3 c, larva after fourth moult, nearly full 
grown ; 3 d 9 the subterranean pupa. 

See pp. 28—30. 



Plate IV. 




l \> 




1 a 








2 b. 




3 ou- 






3 c 



3 oL. 





F. C.Moore iiih 



West ^Newm-an. &. C<? imp 



W.BUCKL£J:i del. 



PLATE V. 

HlPPAEOHIA JANIEA. 

1 a 9 larva after third moult; 1, full-grown larva; 
1 b 9 pupa. 

See pp. 166, 167. 

HlPPAEOHIA TlTHONUS. 

2, 2 a, larva after second moult ; 2 b 9 2 d 9 after third 
moult ; 2 c 9 2 6, after fourth moult ; 2/, pupa. 

See pp. 167—170. 

HlPPAEOHIA HYPEEANTHUS. 

3, 3 a 9 larva after fourth moult ; 3 b 9 pupa, front 
view and side view. 

See pp. 170, 171. 



Plate V 





^£ 




1 <x 




2 h 





2 a 




2 f 








I 



3h 




Z C.Moore "Hfli. 



"W. BUCKLER, c^i. 



"West,New:m.sua-& C° imj>. 



PLATE VI. 

Erebia Blandina {Medea). 

1, 1 a 9 1 b 9 larva after fourth moult ; 1 c, pupa. 

See pp. 30—32. 

Erebia Oassiope {Epiprron). 

2, 2 a, young larvae. 

See pp. 33—35, and 171, 172. 

Cggnonympha Davus. 

3, 3 a 9 larvae after fourth moult ; 3 b 9 pupa. 
See pp. 35, 36. 

C(ENONYMPHA PAMPHILUS. 

4 a, larva after third moult ; 4, 4 b 9 after fourth 
moult ; 4 c, pupa. 

See pp. 172— 174. 



Plate VL 









1 c 



3 ^> m 




4-c 









4- a. 



4- "b 



P. C. Moore lifck. 



W.BUCKLER dieJU. 



We st , TSTevrm sr\ & C? irrrp . 



PLATE, VII. 

Limenitis Sibylla. 

1 c, twig of honeysuckle, beneath which is the 
hybernaculum in which the young larva has passed 
the winter ; above is the empty skin of the hybernated 
larva, and the larva as it appears after that moult; 
1, la, 1 b, full-grown larva represented in three 
different positions ; 1 d } pupa. 

See pp. 36—42. 

Apatura Iris. 

2, larva after first moult ; 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, after fourth 
moult ; 2 d, 2f, 2 g, 2h, 2i, after fifth moult, in dif- 
ferent positions ; 2j, pupa, front view and side view. 

See pp. 42—49. 



Plate ^11. 




IF. C.Moore li£h.. 



"West .1\ ev.iYLa.ii &C° imp . 



W. BUCKLER, duel,. 



PLATE VIII. 

Cynthia cardui. 

1, 1 a, the ordinary thistle-feeding larva full grown; 
1 b, pupa (see pp. 174 — 176) ; 1 c 9 1 d, the hairy mallow- 
feeding larva (noticed pp. 49 to 52) after the fourth 
moult ; 1 e, pupa. 

Vanessa Atalanta. 

2, 2 a, larva when full grown ; 2 b, pupa. 

See pp. 176—179. 

Vanessa Io. 

3, 3 a, larva when full grown ; 3 b, pupa. 

See pp. 179—181. 

Vanessa Antiopa. 

4, 4 a, larva after fourth moult. 

See pp. 52 — 54. 



Plate vnr. 





1 "b 




lot 




1 c 





2 h 







T". C. Moore lith.. 



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W. BUCKLER dUL. 



PLATE IX. 

Vanessa polychloros. 

1 c, larva after third moult ; 1, 1 a 9 1 b, after fourth 
moult ; 1 d, pupa. 

See pp. 54, 55. 

Vanessa tjrtigm. 

2, yellow variety of larva; 2 a, 2 b, other larvae, all 
nearly full grown ; 2 c, pupa. 

See pp. 55 — 57 and p. 181. 

GrRAPTA O-ALBUM. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, full-grown larva ; 3 c, pupa. 

See pp. 57, 58, and pp. 182—184 



Plate IX. 





±6b 



2c 







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Vl£v> 
8^ 



l<x 






2"b 






3c 




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W.BUCKLER del-. 



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PLATE X. 

Argynnis Paphia. 

1, la, lb, 1c, 1 d, larva after last moult; 1 e, pupa. 

See pp. 58 — 65. 

Argynnis Adippe. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 6?, 2 e, larva after last moult ; 2/, 
pupa. 

See pp. 65 — 71. 

Argynnis Aglaia. 

3, 3 a, larva after last moult ; 3 b, pupa. 

See pp. 71—73. 



Plate X. 










£b 




2c 





f.C.Moore litb. 



W.BUCKLER oLeL- 



Woat- Wpwrnavi & C.C, itViJ 



PLATE XL 

Akgynnis Selene. 

1, larva after second moult ; 1 a, after third moult ; 
lb, 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, after fourth moult; If, pupa, side 
view ; 1 g, pupa, front view. 

See pp. 73—77. 

Argynnis Euphrosyne. 

2, larva after second moult ; 2 b, after third moult ; 
2 a, 2 c, after fourth moult ; 2 d, pupa. 

See pp. 77—80. 

Melit^a Oinxia. 

3, larva after last moult ; 3 a, pupa. 

There is no description of this in the volume. 




13o 



X 




Plate XI 



% 



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If 




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2a 




^9 



2d 





23o 






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PLATE XII. 

Melit^a Athalia. 

1,1a, larva after last moult ; 1 b, pupa. 

See pp. 81—84. 

Melflea Artemis. 

2, larva after last moult ; 2 a, pupa. 

See pp. 84 — 85. 

Nemeobius Luoina. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larva after last moult ; 3 c, pupa. 

See pp. 85—89. 

Thecla bbtuljj. 

4, 4 a, larva after last moult ; 4 b, pupa, side view 
and back view. 

See pp. 184, 185. 

Thecla pruni. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larva after last moult ; 5 c, pupa. 
There is no description of this in the volume. 



Pla-teXIL 






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l 







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^" 5 



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PLATE XIII. 

Thecla W-album. 

1, larva after third moult; la, lb, after fourth 
moult ; 1 c, pupa, side view and back view. 

There is no description of this in the volume. 

Thecla quercus. 

2, 2 a, larva after last moult ; 2 b, pupa. 

See pp. 185—188. 

Thecla rubi. 

3, 3 b, larva after last moult, from broom ; 3 a, 
larva after last moult from flowers of furze ; 3 c, pupa. 

See pp. 89— 91 . 

Chbysophantjs Phl^as. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larva after last moult ; 4 c, pupa. 

See pp. 91—94. 



Pla.te.XriI. 





la 



-lc 




li> 




2a 





I 



2]o 



I 



3c 





3cl 




0* 

4-<x 



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PLATE XIV. 

POLYOMMATUS AftGIOLTJS 

1, 1 ft, 1 S, larva after last moult, from holly ; 1 c, 1 d, 
larva after last moult, from ivy ; 1 e, pupa, from holly. 

See pp. 94—100 and 188. 

POLYOMMATUS AlSUS. 

2, larva before last moult; 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d 9 2 e 9 
after last moult ; 2f, pupa, side view and back view. 

See pp. 100—104. 

POLYOMMATUS CoRYDON. 

3, 3 (X, 3 b 9 larva after last moult; 3 c, pupa. 
Noticed under P. Adonis see pp. 109, 110, 111, and 191. 




let 




Plate XIV. 



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le 



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2a 



2to 



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-2f 



I 




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2e 



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PLATE XV. 

POLYOMMATUS ADONIS. 

1, larva before last moult ; 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, If, 
after last moult ; 1 g, pupa. 

See pp. 106—111. 

POLYOMMATUS ALEXIS. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larva after last moult ; 2 c, pupa. 

See pp. Ill, 112, and 191—194. 

POLYOMMATUS iEGON. 

3, larva before last moult ; 3 a, after last moult ; 
3 b, pupa. 

See pp. 112—116. 



la 



Plate XV 




:Vf 



lb 




!g 




1c 




Id. 






2c 




23d 




2cl 




3a 



3i> 



E.C. Moore "Kth.. 



W.BUCKLERcM.. 



West,Nevnaisi.ii&: Co iynp. 



PLATE XVI. 

POLYOMMATUS AGESTIS (MeDON.) 

1,1a, larva after last moult, of the typical form ; 
If, pupa ; lb, 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, larva after last moult of 
the northern form or variety Artaxerxes ; 1 g, pupa of 
the variety Artaxerxes. 

See pp. 116—122. 

Thymele Alveolus. 

2, 2, larva after last moult ; 2 b, pupa. 

See pp. 123—126. 

Thanaos Tages= 

3, larva after second moult ; 3 a, after third moult ; 
3 b, 3 c, after fourth moult. 

See pp. 126—129. 



Plate XV 



if 




lOL 




li> 




lc 



Id 




19 





2Jo 





3ol 



^j 



tT 



3b 




3c 



F. C.Moore litk. 



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West ~N| evnm.Eao.3z C o.iinp 



PLATE XVII. 

Stebopes paniscus. 

1, larva after second moult ; 1 c, after third moult ; 
1 a, 1 b, after fourth moult. 

See pp. 129—134 and 194, 195. 

Pamphila Action. 

2, 2 a, larva after last moult ; 2 b, 2 c, pupa. 

See pp. 135— 138. 

Pamphila linea. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, larva after last moult ; 3 c pupa. 

See pp. 139—141 and 195, 196. 

Pamphila sylvan us. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larva after last moult ; 4 c, pupa ; 4 d % 
folded leaf of Luzula pilosa containing a pupa. 

See pp. 141 and 196—198. 



Plate XSTR. 










2b 



2 a. 




3 oo 




3 c 






4- h 




4 c 





4- A 



F. C.lVtoore "H-Hh 



W. BUCKLER deV. 



"We st .Newman. & C 9 irrnp . 



RAY SOCIETY 



INSTITUTED 1844. 



FOR THE PUBLICATION OP WORKS ON 
NATURAL HISTORY. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION ONE GUINEA. 



LIST 



OF 



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TOGETHER WITH THE 



TITLES OF THE PUBLICATIONS OE THE SOCIETY 



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d&xnmriL 



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Broome, C. E., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., Elmshurst, Batheaston, Bath. 
Browell, E. M., Esq., Feltham, Middlesex. 
Browne, Dr. Henry, Woodheys, Heaton Mersey, Manchester. 
Buckton, G. B., Esq., F.R.S., Weycombe, Haslemere, Surrey. 
Burn, Dr. W. B., Ecclesbourne, Bedford hill road, Balham, S.W. 
Burney, Rev. H., Wavendon Rectory, Woburn. 
Burton, John, Esq., Lee terrace, Blackheath, S.E. 
Busk, Professor G., F.R.S., 32, Harley street^ Cavendish square, W. 
Byerley, I., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, Seacombe, Cheshire. 



Cambridge, Rev. 0. P., Bloxworth Rectory, Wareham. 

Cambridge, University Library. 

Cambridge, University Museum of Zoology. 

Cambridge, Downing College. 

Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College. 

Cambridge, St. Catharine's College. 

Cambridge, Sidney-Sussex College. 

Cambridge, Trinity College. 

Campbell, F. M., Esq., Rose hill, Hoddesdon. 

Canterbury, Philosophical Institute of, New Zealand. 

Capper, S. J., Esq., Huyton Park, Huyton, near Liverpool. 

Capron, Dr. E., Shiere, near Guildford, Surrey. 

Carpenter, Dr. A., Duppas House, Croydon, S. 

Carus, Dr. Victor, Leipsic. 

Cash, W., Esq., Union Banking Company, Halifax. 

Chapman, E., Esq., Frewen Hall, Oxford. 

Cheltenham Permanent Library, Cheltenham. 

Chicago Library, Chicago. 

Chichester and West Sussex Natural History Society, C. T. Halstead, 

Esq., Hon. Treas., Chichester. 
Christiania, University of. 
Church, Dr. W. S., 130, Harley Street, W. 
Cincinnati Public Library. 
Cleland, Professor, 2, The College, Glasgow. 



8 

Clermont, Lord, Ravensdale park, Newry, Ireland. 
Colman, Jeremiah J., Esq., M.P., Carrow House, Norwich. 
Cooke, N., Esq., Gorsey Hey, Liscard, Cheshire. 
Cooper, Colonel E. H., 42, Portman square, W. 
Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., 6, De Vere gardens, Kensington Palace, W. 
Coppin, John, Esq., Kingfield House, by Corbridge-on-Tyne, R.S.O, 
Cork, Queen's College, Cork. 
Cornwall, Royal Institution of, Truro. 

Crallan, G. E., Esq., Cambridgeshire Asylum, Fulbourn, near Cam- 
bridge. 
Craven, Alfred E., Esq., 65, St. George's road, S.W. 
Cregoe, J. P., Esq., 9, Headland Park, Plymouth. 
Cresswell, Mrs. E.., Teignmouth, Devon. 

Crisp, E., Esq., B.A., LL.B., V.P. and Treas. L. S., 6, Old Jewry, E.G. 
Croft, R. Benyon, Esq., R.N., F.L.S., Farnham Hall, Ware, Herts. 
Crowley, Philip, Esq., Wadden House, Croydon, S. 
Cruickshank, Alexander, Esq., LL.D., 20, Rose street, Aberdeen. 

Dale, C. W., Esq., Glanville Wootton, Sherborne, Dorset. 

Darwin, F., Esq., Wychfield, Huntingdon Road, Cambridge. 

Dawson, Sir J. W., F.R.S., F.G.S., M'Gill College, Montreal. 

Decie, Miss A. Prescott, Bockleton Court, Tenbury. 

Devon and Exeter Institution, Exeter. 

Devonshire, Duke of, F.R.S., 78, Piccadilly, W. 

Dickinson, ¥m., Esq., 3, Whitehall place, S.W. 

Dickson, Professor Alexander, 11, Royal circus, Edinburgh. 

Dobree, N. T., Esq., Beverley, Yorkshire. 

Dohrn, Dr. Anton, Stazione Zoologica, Naples. 

Douglas, J. W., Esq., Long Room, Custom House, E.C. 

Douglas, Rev. R. C, Manaton Rectory, Moreton Hampstead, Exeter. 

Douglas, W. D. R., Esq., Orchardton, Castle Douglas, N.B. 

Dowsett, A., Esq., 54, Russell street, Reading. 

Drewitt, D. 0., Esq., Jarrow Hall, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Drosier, Dr. W. H., Cambridge. 

Dublin, National Library. 

Dublin, Royal Irish Academy. 

Dublin Royal College of Science. 

Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons. 

Dublin, Trinity College. 

Dublin, Hon. Society of King's Inn. 



9 

Ducie, Earl of, F.R.S., F.G.S., 16, Portman square, W. 
Dunning, J. W., Esq., M.A., E.L.S., 12, Old square, Lincoln's 
Inn, W.C. 

East Kent Natural History Society, Canterbury. 

Edinburgh, Royal College of Physicians. 

Edinburgh, Library of University of. 

Edinburgh, Museum of Science and Art. 

Edinburgh, Royal Society of. 

Edinburgh, Royal Physical Society, 40, Castle street, Edinburgh. 

Edwards, S., Esq., Kidbrooke Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 

Elisha, Geo., Esq., 122, Shepherdess Walk, City road. 

Ellison, S. T., Esq., 2, Balhousie street, Perth, N.B. 

Elphinstone, H. W., Esq., F.L.S., 2, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, 

W.C. 
England, Bank of, Library, London, E.C. 

England, Royal College of Surgeons of, Lincoln's-inn-fields, W.C. 
Enniskillen, the Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 65, Eaton place, S.W. 
Essex Field Club, per A. J. Lockyer, Esq., Stanley road, Woodford, 

Essex. 
Evans, H. A., Esq., United Services Cottage, Westward Ho, Bideford, 

N. Devon. 

Fenn, C. E., Esq., Eversden House, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, S.E. 

Ffarington, Miss M. H., Worden Hall, near Preston. 

Fildes, J., Esq., 37, Brown street, Manchester. 

Fitch, E. A., Esq., F.L.S., Sec. Ent. Soc, Maldon, Essex. 

Fitch, Fred., Esq., F.R.G.S., Hadleigh House, Highbury New Park, N. 

Fletcher, W. H. R., Esq., 6, The Steyne, Worthing, Sussex. 

Flower, W. H., Esq., F.R.S., British Museum (Natural History), S.W. 

Foster, C, Esq., Thorpe, Norwich. 

Freeman, F. F., Esq., M.E.S., 8, Leigham terrace, Plymouth. 

Friedlander & Son, Messrs., Berlin. 

Fuller, Rev. A., Pallant, near Chichester* 

Galton, Capt. Douglas, F.R.S., 12, Chester street, Grosvenor place, 

S.W. 
Gatty, C. H., Esq., F.L.S., Felbridge Park, East Grinstead, Sussex. 
Geological Society, London, W. 



10 

Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, per Messrs. Triibner. 

George, Frederick, Esq., Fairholme, Torquay. 

Gibson, Mrs. G. S., Esq., Hill House, Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Glasgow, Philosophical Society of. 

Glasgow, University of. 

Godman, F. D., Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square, 

W., and South Lodge, Horsham. 
Goode, J. F., Esq., 3, Regent place, Birmingham. 
Gordon, Rev. George, LL.D., Manse of Birnie, by Elgin, N.B. 
Gottingen, University of. 

Graham, W., Esq., F.R.M.S., Ludgate hill, Birmingham. 
Green, R. Y., Esq., 11, Lovaine crescent, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Grieve, Dr. J., care of W. L. Buchanan Esq., 212, St. Vincent street, 

Glasgow. 
Grut, Ferdinaud, Esq., 9, Newcomen street, Southwark, S.E. 
Gunther, Dr., F.R.S., British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 

road, South Kensington, S.W. 



Hackney Microscopical and Natural History Society, per J. A. Clark, 
Esq., Treasurer, 48, The Broadway, London fields, Hackney, E. 

Haeckel, Professor, Jena, Prussia. 

Haggerston Entomological Society. 

Hailstone, Edward, Esq., F.S.A., Walton Hall, Wakefield. 

Hamilton, Dr. E., F.L.S., F.G.S.,9, Portugal street, Grosvenor square, W. 

Hancock, John, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Harbottle, A., Esq., 6, Gibson terrace, Sunderland. 

Harley, Dr. J., 39, Brook street, Grosvenor square, W. 

Harmer, Sidney F., Esq., B.Sc, King's College, Cambridge. 

Harris, Edw., Esq., F.G.S., Rydal Villa, Longton Grove, Upper 
Sydenham. 

Harris, Dr. F., F.L.S., 24, Cavendish square, W. 

Harris, J. T., Esq., Burton Bank, Burton-on-Trent. 

Harrison, F., Esq., Junior United Service Club, S.W. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S.A. 

Havers, J. C, Esq., Wood Lea, Bedford hill, Balham, S.W. 

Hawkins, Dr. B. L., Woburn, Beds. 

Hawkshaw, J. C, Esq., 33, Great George street, Westminster, S.W. 

Hellins, Rev. J., The Close, Exeter. 

Hepburn, Sir T. B., Bart., Smeaton, Preston Kirk, N.B. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, Watford. 



11 

Hicks, Dr. John B., F.R.S., 24, George street, Hanover square, W. 

Hicks, Dr. J. Sibley, 2, Erskine street, Liverpool. 

Hillier, J. T., Esq., 4, Chapel place, Ramsgate. 

Hilton, James, Esq., 60, Montagu square, W. 

Hinchliff, Miss Katharine M., Worlington House, Instow. 

Holdsworth, E. W. H., Esq., F.L.S., 84, Clifton hill, Abbey road, N.W. 

Hooker, Sir J., C.B., M.D., F.R.S., Kew, W. 

Hope, the Rt. Hon. A. J. Beresford, Esq., M.P., Arklow House, Con- 
naught place, W. 

Hopkinson, John, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Wansford House, "Watford. 

Horley, W. L., Esq., Stanboroughs, Hoddeston. 

Houghton, Rev. W., F.L.S., Preston Rectory, Wellington, Salop. 

Hovenden, F., Esq., Glenlea, Thurlow Park, Dulwich, S.E. 

Howden, Dr. J. C, Sunnyside, Montrose. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society, S. L. Mosley, Esq., Hon. Sec, 
Beaumont Park Museum, Huddersfield. 

Hughes, W. R., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, Wood House, Hands- 
wood, Birmingham. 

Hughes, W. Rathbone, Esq., 3, Princes Gate, Princes Park, Liverpool. 

Hull Subscription Library. 

Hunt, John, Esq., Milton of Campsie, Glasgow. 

Hutchinson, Miss E., Grantsfield, Leominster. 

Hutchinson, R., Esq., 29, Chester street, Edinburgh. 

Huxley, Professor T. H., F.E-.S., Science Schools, South Kensington. 



Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



Janson, E, W., Esq., 35, Little Russell street, Bloomsbury. 
Jenner, Charles, Esq., Easter Duddingsten Lodge, Portobello, Edin- 
burgh. 
Jones, Albert, Esq., Shrublands, Eltham. 
Jordon, Dr. R. C. R., 35, Harborne road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 



Kane, W. F. de V., Esq., Sloperton Lodge, Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 
Kays, J. H., Esq., 33, Wimpole street, Plymouth. 
Keays, Lovell H., Esq., F.R.S., L.S., 26, Charles street, St. James', 
S.W. 



12 

Kenderdine, F., Esq., Morningside, Old Trafford, Manchester. 
Kenrick, G. H., Esq., Whetstone, Somerset road, Edgbaston, Birming- 
ham. 
Kent,W. Saville, Esq., Government Offices, Hobart Town, Tasmania. 
Kilmarnock Library, Kilmarnock. 
King, A., Esq., Aspley Guise, Woburn, Bedfordshire. 
Kitson, J., Esq., Elmete Hall, Leeds. 



Lascelles, A. A., Esq., 7, Stanley terrace, Plymouth. 

Laver, H., Esq., Colchester. 

Laxton, H., Esq., 41, Harpur street, Bedford. 

Lee, Henry, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Renton House, 343, Brixton road, 
S.W. 

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society. 

Leicester, Alfred, Esq., Lynwood, Harbord street, "Waterloo, near 
Liverpool. 

Leicester Free Library, Wellington street, Leicester. 

Leipzig, University of. 

Leman, F.C., Esq., M.E.S., Blackfriars House, Plymouth. 

Lendy, Major A. F., F.L.S., F.G.S., Sunbury House, Sunbury. 

Liastow, W. G., Esq., 79, Union street, Plymouth. 

Lidstone, W. G., Esq., 79, Union street, Plymouth. 

Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 

Lister, Arthur, Esq., F.L.S., Leytonstone. 

Liverpool, Athenaeum. 

Liverpool, Royal Institution. 

Liverpool Library, Lyceum, Liverpool. 

Liverpool Medical Institution. 

Liverpool Microscopical Society. 

Liverpool Free Library. 

Lloyd, A., Esq., The Dome, Bognor, Sussex. 

Lobley, J. Logan, Esq., F.G.S., New Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall. 

Longstaff, G. B., Esq., Southfield Grange, West Hill road, Wands- 
worth, S.W. 

London Institution, Finsbury circus, E.C. 

London Library, 12, St. James's square, S.W. 

Loven, Professor, Stockholm. 

Lubbock, Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.L'.S., R.S., President, 15, Lombar 
street, E.C. 



13 

Marlborough College Natural History Society, Marlborough. 

McGill, H. J., Esq., Aldenham Grammar School, Elstree, Herts. 

McGregor, J., Esq., West Green, Culross, N.B. 

Mcintosh, W. C, M.D., F.L.S., 2, Abbotsford crescent, St. Andrew's 
N.B. 

M'Lachlan, R., Esq., F.R.S., West View, Clarendon road, Lewisham, 
S:E. 

McMillan, W. S., Esq., 17, Temple street, Liverpool. 

Maclagan, Professor Douglas, M.D., F.R.S.E., 28, Heriot row, Edin- 
burgh. 

Madras Government Museum, Madras. 

Major, Charles, Esq., Red Lion Wharf, 69, Upper Thames street, E.C. 

Manchester Free Public Library. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Mansell-Pleydall, J., Esq., Whatcombe, Blandford. 

Martin, G. M., Esq., Red Hill Lodge, Compton, Wolverhampton. 

Mason, P. B., Esq., Burton-on-Trent. 

Mathew, G. F., Esq., R.N., F.L.S., Z.S., &c, Instow, N. Devon. 

Mathews, W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S., 15, Waterloo street, Birmingham. 

Medlycott, Sir W., 6, Pulteney buildings, Weymouth. 

Meiklejohn, Dr. J. W, S., 105, Holland road, Kensington, W. 

Melbourne Public Library. 

Mennell, H. T., Esq., F.L.S., 10, St. Dunstan's buildings, Idol lane, 
E.C. 

Michael, A. D., Esq., F.L.S., Cadogan Mansions, Sloane square, S.W. 

Microscopical Society, Royal, King's College, Strand, London. 

Millar, Dr. John, F.L.S., F.G.S., Bethnall House, Cambridge road, N.E. 

Millett, F. W., Esq., Marazion, Cornwall. 

Mitchell Library, the, Glasgow. 

Mivart, Prof. St. Gteorge J.,F.R.S., 71, Seymour street, Hyde park, W. 

Moore, Mrs. E. T., Sheffield. 

Moseley, Sir T., Rolleston Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 

Munich Royal Library, Munich. 

Murdock, J. Barclay, Esq., F.R.Ph.S.E., Barclay, Langside, Glasgow. 

Museum of Economic Geology, London, S.W. 

Neave, B. W., Esq., Lyndhurst, Queen's road, Brownswood park, N. 
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Newman, T. P., Esq., 54, Hatton garden, E.C. 
Noble, Capt. Jesmond Dene House, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 



14 

Noble, Wilson, Esq., 1, Queensberry place, S.W. 

Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution, Norwich. 

Norman, Rev. A. Merle, M.A., F.L.S., Burnmoor Rectory, Fencehouses, 

Durham. 
Nottingham Free Library. 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, per Levi Lee, Esq., 26, Drury hill, 

Nottingham. 



Oldfield, G. W., Esq., M.A., 30, Ladbroke gardens, W. 
Owens College, Manchester. 
Oxford, Magdalen College. 



Paisley Philosophical Society, Paisley. 

Paris National Library, per Messrs. Longmans. 

Parke, Geo. H., Esq., Infield Lodge, Barrow-in-Furness. 

Parker, W. K., Esq., F.R.S., Crowland, Trinity road, Upper Tooting, 

S.W. 
Pascoe, F. P., Esq., F.L.S., 1, Burlington road, Westbourne Park, W. 
Pearce, W. G., 187, Caledonian road, King's Cross, N. 
Peck, R. Holman, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., Elmfield, Penge lane, S.E. 
Peckover, Algernon, Esq., F.L.S., Wisbeach. 
Peel Park Library, Salford, Lancashire. 
Penny, Rev. C. W., Wellington College, Wokingham. 
Penzance Public Library. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science, Museum, Tay street, Perth. 
Phen6, J. S., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.,5, Carlton terrace, Oakley street, S.W. 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, U.S.A. 
Pierce, F. Nelson, Esq., 143, Southdown lane, Liverpool. 
Plymouth Institution, Athenaeum. 
Pole-Carew, Miss C. L., 3, South place, Rutland gate, S.W., and 

Antonie House, Torpoint, Devonport. 
Porritt, G. T., Esq., Greenfield House, Huddersfield. 
Potchett, Rev. C, M.A., Vicarage, Ryhill, Stamford. 
Power, H., Esq., 37a, Great Cumberland place, Hyde Park, W. 
Preston Free Public Library. 
Preston, T. A., Esq., The Green, Marlborough. 
Pumphrey, C, Esq., Southfield, King's Norton, near Birmingham. 
Pye-Smith, Dr. P. H., 54, Harley street, Cavendish square, W. 



15 
Quekett Microscopical Club, University College. 



Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 

Radford, D., Esq., Park House, Mount Radford, Exeter. 
Ramsay, Sir Andrew C, F.R.S., 15, Cromwell crescent, S.W. 
Rashleigh, J., Esq., 3, Cumberland terrace, Regent's park, N.W. 
Reader, Thomas, Esq., 39, Paternoster row, E.C. 
Reading Microscopical Society, 110, Oxford road, Reading. 
Rigby, Samuel, Esq., Fern Bank, Liverpool road, Chester. 
Ripon, Marquis of, F.R.S., F.L.S., 1, Carlton gardens, S.W. 
Robinson, Eev. F., Front street, Seaton Carew, W. Hartlepool. 
Robinson, Isaac, Esq., The Wash, Hertford. 
Robson, J. E., Esq., 15, Northgate, Hartlepool. 
Roper, F. C. S., Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Palgrave House, Eastbourne. 
Rose, Geo., Esq., Queen street, Barnsley. 
Ross, J. G., Esq., Bathampton Lodge, Bathampton, Bath. 
Rothery, H. C, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., 94, Gloucester terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Royal Institution, Albemarle street, W. 

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 53, Berners street, W. 
Royal Society, Burlington House, Loudon, W. 
Rowe, J. B., Esq., Plympton Lodge, Tlympton, S. Devon. 
Rylands, T. G., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, High Fields, Thelwall, 
near Warrington. 



Salter, Dr. S. J. A., F.R.S., Treasurer, Basingfield, near Basingstoke, 

Hants. 
Salvin, Osbert, Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square. 
Samson and Wallin, Messrs., London. 
Sanders, Alfred, Esq., F.L.S., Milton, Sittingbourne, Kent. 
Sanford, W. A., Esq., F.G.S., Nynehead Court, near Wellington, 

Somersetshire. 
Sang, J., Esq., 33, Oxford street, Darlington. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington. 
Sclater, P. L., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., R.S., 11, Hanover square, W. 
Sharp, I., Esq., F.G.S., Culverden hill, Tunbridge Wells. 
Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Shuttleworth, Edmund, Esq., 6, Hall road, Hamilton terrace, St. 

John's Wood, N.W. 



16 

Sion College Library, London Wall, E.C. 

Slack, H. I., Esq., F.G.S., Ashdown Cottage, Forest row, Sussex. 

Sladen, Rev. C. A., Burghclere, Newbury. 

Slatter, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., Evesham. 

Sloper, G. E., Esq., Devizes. 

Smart, Robert B., Esq., 176, Waterloo place, Oxford road, Manchester. 

Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.R.A.S., Branch hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

Smith, F. W., Esq., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E. 

Smith, S. P., Esq., 4, Dane's inn, W.C. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton. 

Sotheran, Messrs., 136, Strand, W.C. 

South London Entomological Society, care of Edw. Step, Esq., 37, 

Charland road, Putney, S.W. 
South London Microscopical Club, care of J. Guardia, Esq., Helston 

House, Rozel road, Clapham, S.W. 
South, R., Esq., 12, Abbey gardens, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Southport Free Library. 

Spicer, Messrs., Brothers, 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C. 
St. Andrew's University Library, St. Andrew's. 
Stainton, H. T., Esq., F.R.S., L.S., Mountsfield, Lewisham, S.E. 
Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., Ephraim Lodge, The Common, Tunbridge 

Wells. 
Stephenson, J. W., Esq., Equitable Assurance Office, Mansion-house 

street, E.C. 
Stewart, C, Esq., F.L.S., Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, W.C. 
Stockholm Royal Academy, Stockholm. 
Stowell, Rev. H. A., Breadsall Kectory, near Derby. 
Strasbourgh University Library. 

Stroud Natural History and Philosophical Society, Stroud. 
Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., R.M.S., Inglebank, Ear Headingly, Leeds. 
Sunderland Subscription Library. 
Swanston, W., Esq., F.G.S., 50, King street, Belfast. 



Thornewell, Rev. C. F., The Soho, Burton-on -Trent. 

Toronto, University of, Canada. 

Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 

Townsend, F., Esq., M.A., Honington Hall, Shipston-on-Stour. 

Triibner & Co., Messrs., London. 

Turner, Professor W., F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh. 



17 

Tyler, Captain Charles, F.L.S., F.G.S., 317, Holloway road, Hollo- 
way, N. 



University College, London. 
Upsala, University of, Sweden. 



Vass, M., Leipzig. 

Vicars, John, Esq., sen., Seel street, Liverpool. 

Vicary, William, Esq., The Priory, Colleton crescent, Exeter. 

Vinen, Dr. E. Hart, F.L.S., 17, Chepstow villas, Bayswater, W. 

Waldegrave, Earl, 13, Montague place, Bryanstone square, W. 

Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., Chester. 

Walker, Rev. Dr. F. A., 33, Bassett road, Notting hill, W. 

Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.L.S., Z.S., Merton Hall, 
Thetford, Norfolk. 

Warden, Dr. Charles, Greenhurst, 44, Calthorp road, Edgbaston, Bir- 
mingham. 

Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 

Warwickshire Natural History Society, Warwick. 

Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A. 

Watkinson Library, Harford, Con., U.S.A. 

Weightman, J., Esq., 30, Grove street, Liverpool. 

Weir, J. J., Esq., Chirbary, Copers Cope road, Beckenham, Kent. 

Wells, J. R., Esq., 20, Fitzroy street, Fitzroy square, W.C. 

Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 

West Kent Natural History Society, Lewisham, S.E. 

Wheeler, F. D., Esq., Paragon House School, Norwich. 

White, A., Esq.,F.L.S., West Drayton. 

Whittle, F. G., Esq., 2, Cambridge terrace, Lupus street, S.W. 

Wills, A. W., Esq., F.C.S., Wylde Green, Erdington, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Owen, Esq., Cwmffrwd, Carmarthen. 

Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Treas. G.S., Secretary, 
25, Granville park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 

Wollaston, G. H., Esq., 4, College road, Clifton, near Bristol. 

Wood, J. C, Esq., M.B., Torrington, Ledbury. 

Woodd, B. T., Esq., Conyngham Hall, Knaresborough, Yorkshire. 

Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 

b 



18 



Yale College, New Haven, U.S. 

Yeoman, T. P., Esq., 4, St. Hilda's terrace, Whitby. 

York Philosophical Society, York. 



Zoological Society, 11, Hanover square, W. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES 



OF THE 



RAY SOCIETY. 



FROM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN 1844, TO 
JANUARY, 1886. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED 
BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., M.A, F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the ' Biographie 
Universelle ; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 

. Imp. 4to. 



For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Bask, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 

III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B. A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

T. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 23 

II. Letters of John Hay. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates. 

8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Etghth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo. 



24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 
8vo. 



For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.B.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 25 



For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
. Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 



26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Black wall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Gunther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 27 

II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Bernhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S. 

8vo. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 



For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids, 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty- seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



28 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadge. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE EAY SOCIETY. 29 

For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol.11. Forty- nine Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadee. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron. Vol. I. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 



30 LIST OF VOLUMES TSSUED BY THE EAY SOCIETY. 



For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882. 

1/ 
A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 

F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 



For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

tidse. By A. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 



British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 



For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 
/ 
The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 

W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. I. The 

Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo, 



PRINTED BY J. B. ADLABD, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE,